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32 Cards in this Set

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how size plays a role
anythin ovper 8cm is worrisome

anything under 5 is not

in between...use an U/S
granulosa and sertoli cell tumors are usually solid
granulosa and sertoli cell tumors are usually solid
granulosa-theca cell tumors make
estrogen
estrogen
granulosa-theca cell tumors make
An ovarian mass larger than 5 cm in a postmenopausal woman most likely represents an ovarian tumor and should generally be removed... likewise an ovarian mass that is larger than 2-3cm in a prepubescent girl should be investigated and many times requires removal
An ovarian mass larger than 5 cm in a postmenopausal woman most likely represents an ovarian tumor and should generally be removed... likewise an ovarian mass that is larger than 2-3cm in a prepubescent girl should be investigated and many times requires removal
An ovarian mass larger than 5 cm in a postmenopausal woman most likely represents an ovarian tumor and should generally be removed... likewise an ovarian mass that is larger than 2-3cm in a prepubescent girl should be investigated and many times requires removal
An ovarian mass larger than 5 cm in a postmenopausal woman most likely represents an ovarian tumor and should generally be removed... likewise an ovarian mass that is larger than 2-3cm in a prepubescent girl should be investigated and many times requires removal
fascial disruption is more common with what type of incision
vertical son
what are the signs and symptoms of a septic abortion
uterine bleeding and/or spotting in the first trimester with clinical signs of infection. The mechanism is ascending infection from the vagina or cervix to the endometrium and eventually the peritoneum. Affected women generally will have fever and leukocyte counts of greater than 10,500 cell/uL. There is usually lower abdominal tenderness and a foul smelling vaginal discharge....the infection is almost always polymicrobial , involving anaerobic strep, bacteroides, E. coli, and other gramn negative rods
what are the signs and symptoms of a septic abortion
uterine bleeding and/or spotting in the first trimester with clinical signs of infection. The mechanism is ascending infection from the vagina or cervix to the endometrium and eventually the peritoneum. Affected women generally will have fever and leukocyte counts of greater than 10,500 cell/uL. There is usually lower abdominal tenderness and a foul smelling vaginal discharge....the infection is almost always polymicrobial , involving anaerobic strep, bacteroides, E. coli, and other gramn negative rods
what is the treatment of septic abortion
1) maintain BP, 2) monitor the blood pressure, 3) start abx, 4) perform uterine curretage

usually give gent and clinda
what is the treatment of septic abortion
1) maintain BP, 2) monitor the blood pressure, 3) start abx, 4) perform uterine curretage

usually give gent and clinda
what is the timing of uterine curretage in the setting of a septic abortion
usually four hours after abx have been started
chorioamniitis almost always complicates pregnancy with what
rupture of membranes with one exception being listeria...which actually goes from the maternal GI tract to the baby hematogenously...it is diagnosed by amniocentesis ...often the amniotic fluid is meconium stained and gram positive rods may be seen on gram stain...the treatment is IV ampicillin
what often complicated curretage of septic abortion
hemorrhage
First measures in treating pospartem hemorrhage
uterine massage and dilute oxytocin...if these are ineffective , then prostaglandin F2alpha or rectal misosprostol is given...methergine is contraindicated to the hypertensive patient
In the case of postpartem hemorroage the most common cause is uterine atony however if the uterus palpated and felt to be contracted then what else must the practicioner consider
A laceration to the genital tract
what are 7 risk factors for uterine atony
mgso4
oxytocin
rapid labor and delivery
overdistention of the uterus
intra-amniotic infection
prolonged labor
high parity
Late postpartem hemorrhage is defined as
occurring after 24 hours and is most often caused by subinvolution of the placental site occuring at or around 10 - 14 days after delivery...oral ergot alkyloid and careful follow-up is the standard treatment;
what is an option in surgically treating a postpartem hemorrhage in a woman who expresses a wish to maintain her fertility
ligation of the ascending branch of the uterine arteries or the internal iliac (hypogastric) artery are methods for decreasing the pulse pressure to the uterus and can helpp PPH. LIgation of the cardinal ligament leads to interrup[tion of the uterine arteries which usually means a hysterectomy is necessary.
asthma is a contraindication for what med used to treat uterine atony
prostaglandinF2 alpha
what are the four stages of pubertal development
thelarche --> Adrenarche/pubarche --->growth spurt---> menarche
the first sign of puberty is thelarche which occurs at a mean age of 10.8 years...this is followed by the appearance of pubic and axillary hair, usually at 11 years of age. The onset of menses is the final event of puberty, occuring approx. 2.3 years after thelarche at a mean age of 12.9 years...delayed puberty is the abscence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14
the first sign of puberty is thelarche which occurs at a mean age of 10.8 years...this is followed by the appearance of pubic and axillary hair, usually at 11 years of age. The onset of menses is the final event of puberty, occuring approx. 2.3 years after thelarche at a mean age of 12.9 years...delayed puberty is the abscence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14
the first sign of puberty is thelarche which occurs at a mean age of 10.8 years...this is followed by the appearance of pubic and axillary hair, usually at 11 years of age. The onset of menses is the final event of puberty, occuring approx. 2.3 years after thelarche at a mean age of 12.9 years...delayed puberty is the abscence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14
the first sign of puberty is thelarche which occurs at a mean age of 10.8 years...this is followed by the appearance of pubic and axillary hair, usually at 11 years of age. The onset of menses is the final event of puberty, occuring approx. 2.3 years after thelarche at a mean age of 12.9 years...delayed puberty is the abscence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14
what is the MCC of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism
turners 45 X,
turner's syndrome patients lets not forget are at increased risk for what
osteoporosis
delayed puberty def....

primary amenorrhea def...
14

16
breast engorgement is 2/2 vascular congestion and milk accumulation
breast engorgement is 2/2 vascular congestion and milk accumulation
postpartem mastitis usually occurs around the
2nd - 4th week postpartem
the galactocele or milk retention cyst is caused by blockage of a milk duct...
the milk accumulates in one or more breast lobes, leading to a nonerythematous fluctuant mass. They usually resolve sontaneously but may need aspiration
breast engorgement rarely causes high fever persisting more than 24 hours
breast engorgement rarely causes high fever persisting more than 24 hours
breast engorgement rarely causes high fever persisting more than 24 hours
breast engorgement rarely causes high fever persisting more than 24 hours
Vit D should be
supplemented at 2 months are the vitamin D drops