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53 Cards in this Set

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Endangered species
A species that is in serious danger of becoming extinct.
Structural evidence
The observations of an organisms features that support a hypothesis about relationships. For example, the similarity in leaf shapes found among oak trees supports their relatedness.
Molecular evidence
The observations of the chemical make up of different organisms that support a hypothesis about their degree of relatedness. For example, the DNA of more closely related organisms is more similar than the DNA in distantly related organisms.
None
Complimentary bases
In double stranded DNA and in DNA replication:
A matches with T, C matches with G.

In copying DNA --> mRNA:
A --> U, T --> A, C --> G, G --> C.
None
Base sequence
The linear order of bases found on a DNA or RNA molecule.
Hypothetical
adjective. Describes an imagined thing, situation, or event that is normally used as a tool for understanding a real phenomenon or deciding on a course of action where ethical concerns are being considered.
Conducting tissue
The specialized structures found in certain kinds of plants that carry water from the roots to other parts of the plant and carry food from the leaves to other parts of the plant.
None
Pigment
A chemical substance that selectively absorbs and reflects different wavelengths of light, giving it a particular color. A coloring agent. Chlorophyll in plants is an example.
None
Microtip dropper
A pipette with a very small tip for producing small drops of a solution (see image card).
Plant extract
A chemical mixture taken from some part of a plant. Usually produced by liquifying the plant parts in a blender and mixing with water, alcohol, or some other solvent and then filtering.
Chromatogram
The product of a paper chromatography test. The filter paper, for example, that shows the color pattern obtained when the pigments in a mixture are separated (see paper chromatography image card).
Paper chromatography
A method of separating the colors in a mixture based on the different weights of the molecules that make up the different pigments in the mixture.
Fragment
A piece of something that has been broken, cut, or otherwise separated into pieces.
Translation
The reading of the genetic code in mRNA that results in the production of a protein at the ribosomes.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A copy of a single gene found in DNA. The gene from a segment of DNA is copied as this molecule, using the rules of complimentary base pairing (see complimentary base sequence).
Branching tree
A diagram that shows the proposed evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms. Also called a cladogram.
Foreign species
A species of plant, animal, etc., that is imported or migrates into an area that it does not normally inhabit. Also called "introduced" or "invasive" species. Frequently cause environmental problems because their populations tend to grow at an uncontrolled rate and crowd out or kill "native" species.
Soil fertility
A measure of the amount of nutrients necessary for plant growth found in a particular area.
Aesthetic value
The importance we place on things because they bring us "beauty" in various forms (examples in parentheses) - visual beauty (natures colors), smell (flowers), taste (fruits), sound (birds chirping), etc.
Pulse rate
Heart rate as measured by applying gentle pressure to an artery in the wrist, neck, etc.
Histogram
A graph, typically with bars, that shows the frequency of the occurrence of a phenomenon or a "frequency distribution" (see image card).
None
Muscle fatigue
The decreased ability of a muscle to continue to contract and do work as a result of repeated or prolonged use. Frequently accompanied by a burning sensation that is caused by the build-up of waste materials in the muscle cells under these conditions.
Heat
The transfer of thermal energy between two objects or substances with different temperatures. This transfer is never 100% efficient so some of that thermal energy always escapes into the environment and eventually to outer space.
Refute
To contradict, to provide evidence against a particular hypothesis or statement.
Germination
When the dormant embryonic plant within a seed begins to grow and emerge from the seed.
Tentative
Subject to change. All scientific hypotheses, laws, and theories are accepted with the understanding that new evidence may be found that casts doubt on the concept.
Vary
To differ or to be different. Also to change something, such as the conditions in an experiment.
Fair test
A controlled experiment where one variable is changed and all others (to the extent possible) are held constant.
Test subjects
The individuals, human or otherwise, that are being tested in an experiment or other study.
Selecting agent
The condition or conditions in an ecosystem that determine which individuals are more likely to survive. The ones best suited to take advantage of the conditions are more likely to survive.
Migrate
To move from one place to another. Some animals do this on a seasonal basis, others do it in response unfavorable environmental conditions (lack of food, water, etc) and still others do it by "accident" such as being carried by the wind, or drifting on a log, etc.
Random
Occurring at an irregular or unpredictable frequency.
None
Collision
When two or more objects or particles (atoms, molecules) crash into one another, as constantly occurs in liquids and gases.
Concentration
A measure of the amount of one substance that is dissolved in another substance. Example - a 1% saline solution would be 1% salt and 99% water, etc.
Artificial membrane
A thin sheet of material that is selectively permeable (see dialysis tubing).
Pores
Tiny, often microscopic openings through which small particles or small quantities of a substance can enter or exit a cell, tissue, etc.
Selectively permeable
A membrane that allows some particles to enter or exit while keeping other particles from entering or exiting. Frequently, it is the size of the particle that determines whether the particle can enter or exit, but there are other determining factors as well.
Permeability
The degree to which a membrane with pores allows materials to move in or out.
Dialysis Tubing
An flexible, tubular sheet of artificial membrane made of a selectively permeable material, used in the treatment of individuals with kidney failure to filter waste products from the blood. Also used to demonstrate the qualities of a cell membrane because of its permeability (see image card).
Pipette
A tube-shaped, usually glass or plastic device with a tiny opening at one end used for transferring small drops of liquid (see image card).
Funnel
A device for pouring liquids into small-mouthed containers such as bottles. It is roughly cone shaped, containing a wide opening at one end and a tapered, small opening at the other end (see image card).
None
Amber
A light, translucent, golden-brown color.
Initial state
The condition a system is in at the beginning of a period of time, usually at the beginning of some event or experimental test.
Final state
The condition a system is in at the end of a period of time, usually at the end of some event or experimental test.
Beaker
A cylindrical container with a beak-like spout that makes pouring liquids easier (see image card).
Iodine
A chemical solution that can be used as a starch indicator. Turns from amber color to dark blue/black in the presence of starch.
None
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. The direction of the diffusion is from the side that has a high concentration of water to the side that has a low concentration of water (see image card).
Solute
A substances that is dissolved in water.
Distilled water
Water that has been purified, traditionally by evaporation, which leaves behind any solids that might be dissolved in the water. When the evaporated water condenses it is free of dissolved solids and virtually "100%" water. Normal tap water has impurities that can sometimes affect an experiment or chemical process.
Intravenous
In the vein. A method of delivering nutrients and medicines by inserting a needle directly into a vein.
None
Saline
Salty. Refers to a solution that has some concentration of salt (NaCl) in it.
Contractile vacuole
A specialized organelle in some single-celled freshwater organisms that pumps out excess water that diffuses in by osmosis.
None
Yield
verb. "to gives" or produce, as in a chemical reaction. In reading the equation for a chemical reaction, this word is represented by an arrow. Example: glucose + O2 --> (ATP) + CO2 + H20.