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71 Cards in this Set

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What is territoriality?
Has been used for years in the study of animal and bird behvaior

generally, it means behavior characterised by identification with a geographic area in a way that indicates ownership and defense of a territory against percieved "inavadoes"
What are three types of territories?
(1) primary
(2) secondary
(3) public
what is primary territory?
clearly the exclusive domain of the owner

central to the daily functions of an owner
what is an example of primary territory?
homes and bedrooms
what are some possessional territories?
jackets, purses, dependent children
what are secondary territories?
not as central to the daily life of the owner, nor are they perceived as cleary exclusive to the owner
What are public territories?
available to almost anyone for tempory ownership, for sacmple, parks, beaches, streets, seats, telephone booths, a place in line, or an unobstructed line of vision to see a particular object of instrest
People who are isolated show a general increase in _____________ and a general pattern of ________.
territorial behvaior

social withdrawl
What are the three types of territorial encroachment?
violation
invasion
contamination
what is violation?
involved the unwarranted use of another's territory.

may be done with eyes (staring)

voice (talking too loudly)

body (taking up subway seats)
what is invasion?
is all encompassing and permane.

armed invasion into country


wife turning husbands den into computer room
what is contamination?
defiling another's territory

messy hotel rooms
dog feces in our front yards
food on our silverware
what factors do encroachments depend on?
who violated?
why did they violate?
what type of territory?
how was the violation accomplished?
how long did it last/
do we expect further encroachments?
where did the violation occur?
what are the two types of territorial defense?
prevention

reaction
what is preention?
is a means of staking out our territory so other recognize it as ours and go elsewhere
what is a territorial marker?
something that is used, such as purse or object, to designate something as your space
males feel more stressed about adjacent approaches, while women feel more stressed about frontal approaches

true or false
false

opposite

men hate frontal
women hate adjacent
what is positon?
refers to location in a room
what is a posture?
refers t such indicators as wheter a person has materials spread out "like he or she owns the place"or whether they are tightly organized
what is a gesture?
can be used to indcate receptivity or rejction of communication, for example, hostile glances, turning ot leaving away, blocking with hadns or arms, and so on.
did students flee more quickly when a group of highly dressed individuals came in
yes
due to the business man herd study, what can we conclude about territory?
not only do we not want people to violate our territory, we do not want to violate others territory
With enough food and no danger of preadators, norway rats __________ their population at about 150
stablized
what did Calhourn name his study?
the behaviorlal sink
Some rats _________ from social and sexual intercourse completely; others began to
_________ anything in sight; _____________ patterns were totally disrupted, and ___________ were frequently persued by many males.
withdrew

mount

courtship

females
Nest building patterns, became _________.
sloppy or nonexistant
___________ of young rats became mixed; newborn and young rats were ___________ or _________ by hyperactive young males.
litters

stepped on

eaten
Unable to establish _______________, dominant males fought over postions near ___________; classes of rats shared territoies and exhibited ____________' the _____________ violated all territorial rights by running around in packs and disregarding any boundaries except those backed by force.
spatial boundaries

feeding bins

similar behaviors

hyperactive males
____________ frequently had miscarriages; disorders with _________ were numerous, ______ of 558 newborns in the sink survived to be weaned.
pregnant

sex organs

1/4
__________ increased siginficanylu.
aggressive behvaior
in monkeys which was more prominent in crowding behvaiors: agressive or coping?
coping
what type of coping activities increased in crowded areas for monkeys?
mutual grooming

rapid reconcilation after a fight

the use of a specfic spatial expression to indicate the desire to avioid trouble
Calhourn's work is influenial in our understanding of crowding behvaior among humans.

t or f
false
what is density?
refers to the number of people per unit of space
what is crowding?
refers to a feeling state that may develop high or low density situation
what are some factors that may lead to us feeling crowded?
environmental factors

personal factors

social factors

goal related factors
what are environmental factors?
such as reduced space; unwatned noise, the lack of needed resources or the ability to obtain them; and the absense of territroial markers such as screens or prtitions
what are personal factors?
such as gender (males tend to feel more density acultely than feamleS) personality characteristics sch as reflecting low self esstem, dominance or control;

a low desire for social contact

prior unpleasant experieences with high desnity
what are social factors?
such as a frequent of unwanted social contact from people at close quatrers

inescapable interactions with people from an unfamiliar group

unpleaste interaction
what are goal related factors?
such as the unability to accomplish what is desired
Is high density always necessarily a bad thing?
no

people like football games

high density neighborhoods tend to have less suicide attempts and physical health problems
what are some methods of coping in highly dense cities?
(1) having short converstaions wtih people

(2) ignoring the drunk and not talking to people seen on the commuter train everyday

(3) shifting responsibility of others (ie not expecting change from bus driver)

(4) blocking inputers, for example, using attendands to guard apartment buildings
By the time children reach _________ they understand that conversational distance has meaning.
third grade
what is informal space?
things such as interpersonal space
what is interpersonal space?
the sharing of space between two territorial areas
what are four categories of informal space?
(1) intimate

(2) casual-personal

(3) social consultative
what is intimate?
distances range from actual phsyical contact to about 18 inches
what is casual personal?
extends from 1.5 feet to 4 feets
what is social consultative?
ranged from 4 to 12 feet
what is public distance?
covers the area from 12 feet to the limits of visibility or hearing
what are the six best substantiated findings about personal space?
sex

age

cultural ethncity

topic or subject matter

setting

physical characteristic

attindinal and emotional oreintation

characterisitics of interpersonal relastionship

personality characteristics
In settings, females choose to interact with others more closely.

true or false
ture
in interactions, who are more close in proximity: men or woman.
women, especially in anglo-american samples
what are some common things that people do to baby boys and girls
baby boys frequently get put on the ground


girls are frequently hugged and put into high chairs
Children at 10 were punished for invading personal space, while children at age five were not.

true or not?
true
does cultural background affect the amount of space that might be between people
yes
what are some examples of noncontact groups?
asians
indians
pakastanis
americans
what are some example of topic and subject matter in regard to proxemics?
students who were praised sat closer

students who were not sat further away
People who are fat and short have farther conversational distances

true or false
true
People who stand further away are going to be liked more.

true or false
false

they will be liked less
how close is a comfortable distance for a husband in a satisfying marriage?
close
what is small group ecology?
seating behavior and spaial arrangements in small groups
the person at the head of the table is usually concieved as the leader

true or false
true
if people are put into a power central positon, will they act like leaders?
yes
People at the ends of tables are usually frequent talkers.

true or false
true
Postions 2 and 4 at a table are usually considered the dominant more participating members of conversation.

true or false
false

members 1, 3, and 5 usually are
seats 1 and 5 usually attract what type of person?
a task oriented leader
seat 3 usually attracts what type of person?
socioemotional leader
what were the four tasks in which the table studies did?
conversation

cooperation

coaction

competition
how do intimate friends sit at a bar?
side by side
do sex and aquaintance have an affect on someone's seating preference?
yes