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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nutrition
• Science of foods/nutrs they contain
• Actions: ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metab, excretion
• Also SEC and psychological effects of food
Digestion
• Food broken ↓ into absorbable units
Absorption
• Intake of nutrients by cells of SI for transport into blood or lymph
Metabolism
• Total of all chem. rxns in cells, how obtain/spread E from food
Nutrients
• Chem. subs from food, used for E, structure, regulating agents to  growth, maintenance/repair, ↓ risk of diseases
Essential nutrients
• Nutrients must have b/c body can’t make enough
• Also called indispensable nutrients
• About 40
Risk factor
• Possibility,
• How MANY rfs = important
• 50% rfs=genetics
Protein
• 4 cal/g
• Build muscle
• Meat, eggs, nuts
• Essential/non
• organic
Carbohydrate
• Energy, sugars
• 4 cal/g
• Bread, fruits
• organic
Lipid
• 9 cal/g
• E storage, fat storage macihne
Vitamins
• Organic
• Required in small amts
Minerals
• Inorganic – no carbon
• Will not dissolve
Water
• Inorganic
• Essential for life
Pytochemicals
• Plants
• Can ↓ cancer, heart disease
Kilocalorie
• Amt needed to ↑ 1 kg of water 1 degree celcius
Energy
• Capacity to do work
Dietary fiber
• From plants
• Not digestable by humans
• Include cellulose, hemicelluoses, pectins, gums, mucilages, and nonpolysaccharides lignins cutins and tannins
Glucose
• A monosaccharide, sometimes known as dextrose
• Known as “blood sugar”
• essential E source
Starch
• plant polysacc composed of glucose
• most of glucose supply
• available carbs
• storage forms of glucose  E for humans
Triglyceride
• main form of fat
• major storage form of fat in body
• composed of glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached
• called call triacyglycerols
Lipid
• includes tryglycerides, phospholipids, sterols
• insoluble in water
Fat
• lipids that are solid at room temp --- BRICK
Oil
• lipids that are (l) at room temp
Unsaturated fat
• has triglycerides in which most of fatty acids are unsaturated
Amount of protein commonly eaten
• usually ppl eat more than enough
• .8 g/kg of body weight
o 5-175 g, or 200-700 cal
% of H20 in body
• 76%
Uses for water
• Metabolism, transport, waste products
• Essential for life
• Keeps body temp
• Dehydration: common in elderly (lose thirst buds) and infants (cant talk)
Calories from alcohol
• 7 cal/g
Uses for E
• Metabolism
• Quiet thought to vigorous activity
• Storage
Calculating percent of calories from a nutrient
16 g carbs X 4cal/g = 64
7 g ptein X 4 cal/g = 28 cal8 g fat X 9 cal/g = 81 c

173 cal ----

l81 cal of fat÷173 cal = .47
.47X 100= 47%
DRI
• A set of values for healthy people
o Includes EAR, RDA, AI, UL
RDA
• Recommended dietary amount
• For individs
• Deficiency disease
• 95% of pop
• RDA=EAR for E
• RDA and AI never = for same nutrient
• Average daily amt that’s considered adequate for healthy person
EAR
• For 50% of pop
• Avg amt that sufficient
• Groups: school, military
• Basic Basic basic
AI
• Adequate intake
• For some nutrients, not enough  uses AI instead of RDA
• Relies on scientific judgement, not evid
TUL
• Tolerable Intake Levels
• - effects
• Only from pills, not food
Vitamin E
• RDA 11-15 mg/day
• Antioxidant
• Comes from oils – salad dressing, margarine
• Rare to have deficiency
Nutritional Assessment
• Historical info
• Anthropometric
o Height/weight, body fat
o Compare to others
• Clinical tests
o Usually phys symptoms befote
o Blood/urine, nails
Common causes of death
1. Herat disease
2. cancer
3. stroke
4. (6) diabetes
What makes good research?
1. lots #’s
2. isolate variables
a. control everything else
b. should prevent random events
Hypotheses
Experiments
Theory
Double blind study
Control group
Placebo
Types of Research
Epidemiological • narrow down list of possible causes
• raise questions • can’t control variables
• no cause/effect

Lab based studies • control
• determine effects of variable BUTTTTTT animals no = humans
• no outcome
------------------------
Human intervent/clinical trials • Control
• Apply findings to some individs
• Placebo effect
• Double blind procedure (ADHD) •
BUTTTTTTT
Cant generalize to all humans
• Ethics (babies)
Correlation studies
• NOT cause/effect
• Phenomena
• Point to possible causes
Research v Rumor
• Vitamin E and scar – didn’t have control
• Vitamins/mins work inside cell not on top of skin
• Sample of 1 proves nothing
R.D.
• College ed food/nut specialist, evaluates ppls nut health needs