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27 Cards in this Set

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thiamin
vitamin B1
energy metabolism
pork/whole grains/enrirched grains/nuts
deficiency: beriberi (muscle weakness, wasting, endema)
no toxicity
riboflavin
vitamin B12
energy metabolism
milk and milk products/spinach/enriched grains
deficiency: cracks at corners of mouth, sensitivity to light, eye disorder
niacin
viatamin B3
energy metabolism
rotein foods/enriched grain
deficiency: pellagra
folate
DNA synthesis
oj/green veggies/enriched grains/sunflower seeds
deficiency: megaloblastic anemia
vitamin B12
cyanocobalamin
folate metabolism
animal sources
deficiency: macrocytic anemia
vitamin B6
pyridoxal
amino acid and rea metabolism
meat, fish, veggies
deficiency: rashes/scaly skin, anemia
biotin
sulfur containing vitamin
energy metabolism
weidely distributed in foods/peanut butter/egg yolks
pantothenic acid
energy metabolism/synthesis of many compounds
widespread in foods/meats/whole grain cerals
deficincy: intestinal problems, hypoglycemia, insomnia
vitamin C
ascorbic acid
antioxidant/ collagen synthesis/ iron absorption
citrus fruits/ cabage type veggies/ dark green veggies
deficiency: scurvy (bleeding gums, impaired wound healing, loose/decaying teeth)
vitamin A
precursor: beta carotene
vision/promote cell growth/ immune system/ antioxiant (bc form)
liver/fortified milk & breakfast cereal/ dark green & orange fruits & veggies
deficiency: night blindness, xereophthalmia, poor growth
toxic: supplementation, too much liver, fetal malformations, hair loss, skin changes, bone pain, fractures
vitamin D
cholecalciferol
synthesized in body by sunlight
hormone
increases absorption of calcium and phosphorous, maintain optimal blood calciuma nd calcification of bone
animal based foods
deficiency: rickets (children), osteomalacia (adults)
toxicity: kidney damage, calcium deposits in soft tissues
vitamin E
tocopherol
antioxidant (prevents breakdown of viatmin A and unsaturated fatty acids), may decrease risk of heart disease
vegetable oils, nuts/seed, fortified breakfast cerals, some greens/fruit
deficiency: not common
vitamin K
phyloquinone, menaquinone, menadione
blood clotting/synthesis of bone proteins
green veggies/liver, bananna
deficiency: hemorrhage
toxicity: can occur with supplementation
calcium
most abundant
stucture of bones/teeth/muscle contraction/nerve transmission/blood clotting/
milk and milk products/soy milk/broccoli/fortified OJ
deficiency: osteoporosis, rikckets
to decrease bone loss: exercise (weight bearing), calcium, vitamin D, estrogen
phosphorus
2nd most abundent in body
bone andn teeth structure/buffere/DNA & RNA/ metabolism, phopholipids, decreases Ca absorption
soft drinks, animal, legumes, dairy, fish
magnesium
important to enzymes/ ATP metabolims/ inhibits mmuscle contraction & blood clotting
dark green foods/legumes/whole grains/nuts/chocolate
sodium
cation outside cell/fluid & electrolyte balance/increases hypertension if "salt sensitive"
processed foods/salt/condiments/sauces/soups
salt pill not recommended for endurance athletes/diets rarely lack
potassium
cation within cell body/fluid & electrolyte balance
fresh fruits & veggies/OJ/bananas/meant & milk/whole grains
deficiency is rare
toxic: overuse of potassium salt
chloride
anion outside cell/fluid & electrolyte balance/HCl
table salt/processed foods
sulfur
not a nutrient itself, but part of other compounds/"bridges" in proteins/acid-base balane
all protein containing foods
iodine
component of thyroid hormone
deficiency: goiter, cretinism
sources: ocean mist/iodized salt
iron
hemoglobin & myoglobin (carry and release O2)
forms: heme (animal foods) & nonheme (plant & animal foods-absorbed poorly)
deficiency: most common nutrient deficiency in US (anemia)
toxicity: hemochromatosis (most common genetic disorder in US)/iron poisoning in kids
zinc
DNA/RNA/taste perception/wound healing/sperm development/insulin/vitamin A
shellfish/meats/poultry/liver/whole grains
selenium
antioxidant (makes thyroid hormone active)
deficiency: may increase risk for heart disease
meats and other animal products/whole grains
fluoride
teeth
deficiency: increased risk of dental cavitites (most widepread health problem)
toxicity: fluorosis (darkened teeth-too much fluoride)
chromium
facilitate glucose uptake (with insulin)
supplements do not help lose fat and build muscle
meats/egg yolks/whole grains/veg oil/nuts
copper
helps form hemoglobin
legumes/whole grains/nuts/organ meats/seeds/dried fruits