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273 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
FUNCTIONS OF WATER
- transport
- structural support for molecules
- participates in metabolic reactions
- solvent
- lubricant
- body temperature regulation
- maintains blood volume
INTRACELLULAR FLUID
- fluid within the cells, usually high in potassium and phosphate.
- accounts for approx. 2/3 of the body's water
INTERSTITIAL FLUID
- fluid between the cells, usually high in sodium and chloride
- large component of extracellular fluid
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
- fluid outside the cells
- included 2 main components of interstitial fluid and plasma
- accounts for approx. 1/3 of the body's water
WATER BALANCE
- Fluids continually lose and replace their components, yet the composition of each compartment remains the same.
- The body responds by adjusting both water intake and excretion as needed
WATER INTAKE
- influenced by thirst and satiety
- hypothalamus initiates drinking behavior
DEHYDRATION
- the condition in which body water output exceeds water input.
- Symptoms include thirst, dry skin and mucous membranes, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and weakness
WATER INTOXICATION
- the rare condition in which body water contents are too high in all body fluid compartments
WATER SOURCES
- fruits and vegetables (about 90% water)
- meats and cheese (50% water)
- metabolic processes
WATER LOSSES
- sweating
- respiration
- urine
- GI tract (feces)
WATER RECOMMENDATIONS
- different on an individual basis
- determined by diet and physical activity
HEALTH EFFECTS OF WATER
- meets the body's fluid needs
- protects the bladder against cancer
- protects against kidney stones, prostate cancer, and breast cancer
HARD WATER
- higher in calcium and magnesium
SOFT WATER
- higher in sodium and potassium
- more desirable around the house but aggravates hypertension
HOW BODY REGULATES BLOOD VOLUME
- kidney and hypothalamus release hormones to regulate water and sodium.
ELECTROLYTES
- a salt that dissociates into ions
- Cation- + charged ion
- Anion- (-) charged ion
- attracts water
ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION
- conducts electricity because of dissociation of ions
SOLUTES
- any substance dissolved in solution
OSMOSIS
- movement of water across a membrane toward the side of greater concentration so both sides will have the same concentration.
- vegetables sweat when salted
- raisins swell when put in water
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
- amount of pressure needed to prevent the movement of water across a membrane.
- cell membrane is a barrier to solute, only water can move across
FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
- proteins regulate flow of fluids and ions since water is attracted to proteins
- regulation of water occurs in the GI tract (absorption of minerals) and kidneys
- sodium and chloride are most easily lost when fluid is lost
- solutes are lost by different routes
- Oral Rehydration Therapy (sugar + salt + water) is a way to replace extreme lost of fluids and electrolytes
pH
- a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions.
- The lower the pH the higher the H+ ion concentration and the stronger the acid
ACID BASE BALANCE
- regulated by buffers like bicarbonate and carbonic acid
CO2 + H2O = H2CO3(carbonic acid) = HCO3 (bicarbonate) + H
- regulated by the lungs. The more carbon dioxide blowed out the more basic the blood
- regulated by the kidneys (long term control)
MAJOR MINERALS
- essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts larger than 5 grams.
INORGANIC ELEMENTS
- always retain chemical identity
- once minerals enter the body they stay there until they are secreted
- minerals have varied roles but they are mostly noted for fluid balance and bone growth
BINDERS
- chemical compounds in foods that combine with nutrients (minerals) to form complexes the body can't absorb
- Examples of compounds are phytates (legumes and grains) and oxalates(rhubarb and spinach)
SODIUM
- principal extracellular cation
- causes hypertension and may cause osteoporosis. (decrease sodium than decrease calcium)
- maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
- assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
CHLORIDE
- principal extracellular anion
- maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
- part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach, necessary for proper digestion
POTASSIUM
- principal intracellular cation
- maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
- facilitates many reactions
- supports cell integrity
- assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions (great potassium deficiency can cause heart to stop)
CALCIUM
- mineralization of bones and teeth
- involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting
- blood pressure, immune defenses
- protected in blood before it is protected in the bone.
PHOSPHORUS
- mineralization of bones and teeth
- part of every cell
- important in genetic material, part of phospholipids
- used in energy transfer and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance
MAGNESIUM
- bone mineralization,
- building of protein,
- enzyme action,
- normal muscle contraction,
- nerve impulse transmission,
- maintenance of teeth,
- functioning of immune system
SULFUR
- stabilizes protein structure
TRACE MINERALS
- essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts smaller than 5 grams.
- more than a dozen but the most common are zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodine, and selenium
- From unprocessed whole foods (depends on soil, water, bioavailability, and how foods are processed)
- deficiences have wide reaching affects and can reach people of all ages, but toxicities occur not far from the recommended requirements
MUCOSAL FERRITIN
- a storage protein from mucosal cells in the small intestine
- aids in iron absorption, transport, and storage
IRON ABSORPTION
- Iron from food goes to muscosal cells in small intestine
- If the body doesn't need iron it is excreted
- If the body needs iron than ferritin releases iron to transferrin (transport ferritin)
- Then it goes to another transferrin that travels through the blood to the rest of the body
HEME IRON
- foods derived from animal flesh
- accounts for 10% of iron intake
- absorbed at a greater rate (25%)
NONHEME IRON
- mostly found in plants but also contained in animals too
- 90% absorbed
- less well absorbed at 17%
MFP FACTOR
- a factor associated with the digestion of meat, fish, and poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption
FACTORS THAT ENHANCE NONHEME IRON ABSORPTION
- MFP factor
- Vitamin C
- Citric Acid From Foods
- Lactic acid from foods
- HCL form stomach
- Sugars
FACTORS THAT INHIBIT NONHEME IRON ABSORPTION
- Phytates- soy, whole grain, and nuts
- Fibers- soy, whole grain, and nuts
- Oxalates- vegetables
- milk- (calcium and phosphate) do not take iron supplements with milk but with fruit juice
- Tannic acid in tea, coffee, nuts, and fruits and vegs
- EDTA in food additives
IRON DEFICIENCY
- people with highest risk are: women in reproductive years, pregnant women, infant and young children, teenagers
- Anemia can be a symptom of iron deficiency, but there can also be many other types of anemia
- Iron deficiency anemia means that the severe depletion of iron stores results in low hemoglobin and small, pale red blood cells
- Other deficiency symptoms are impaired work performance and cognitive function, impaired immunity, pale skin, nailbeds, mucous membranes, palm creases, concave nails, inability to regulate body temperature, and pica
FUNCTIONS OF IRON IN THE BODY
- part of the protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood
- part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction
- necessary for the utilization of energy as part of the cell' metabolic machinery
IRON TOXICITY SYMPTOMS
- GI distress (iron supplements cause GI upset)
- Iron overload causes infections, fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, organ damage
ROLES OF ZINC
- metalloenzymes- enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their structures
ABSORPTION OF ZINC
- zinc goes to mucosal cells in the intestine and excess zinc is stored as Metallothionein (a sulfur rich protein that avidly binds with and transports metals such as zinc)
- If the body needs zinc metallothionein releases zinc to albumin and transferrin for transport to the rest of the body
- The pancreas uses zinc to make digestiv enzymes and secretes them back into the intestine ( this is enteropancreatic circulation)
ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION
- unnecessary
- zinc lozenges are controversial and need more research
FUNCTIONS OF ZINC
- part of many enzymes
- associated with the hormone insulin
- involved with the normal development of the fetus
ZINC DEFICIENCY
- growth retardation
- delayed sexual maturation
- impaired immue function
- hair loss
- eye and skin lesions
- loss of appetite
ZINC TOXICITY
- interferes with copper and iron in the body's metabolism causing copper and iron deficiencies
- loss of appetite
- impaired immunity
- low HDL
GOITROGENS
- a substance that enlarges the thyroid gland and causes toxic goiter
- occurs naturally in such foods as cabbage, kale, brussels, cauliflower, broccoli, and kohirabi
GOITER
- an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to an iodine deficiency malfunction of the gland, or overconsumption of a goitrogen.
- Goiter causes iron deficiency
IODINE DEFICIENCY
- underactive thyroid gland, goiter
- mental and physical retardation in infants (cretanism)
CRETINISM
- a congenital disease characterized by mental and physical retardation
- commonly caused by maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy which also causes goiter
IODINE TOXICITY
- underactive thyroid gland
- elevated TSH
- Goiter
FUNCTIONS OF IODINE IN THE BODY
- a component of 2 thyroid hormones that help to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
SELENIUM DEFICIENCY
- predisposition to heart disease characterized by cardiac tissue becoming fibrous
SELENIUM TOXICITY
- loss and brittleness of hair and nails
- skin rash, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders
- garlic breath odor
FUNCTIONS OF SELENIUM IN THE BODY
- defends against oxidation (antioxidant)
- regulates thyroid hormone
- causes a garlic breath odor
COPPER TOXICITY
- liver damage
COPPER DEFICIENCY
- anemia
- bone abnormalities
FUNCTIONS OF COPPER IN THE BODY
- necessary for absorption and use of iron in the formation of hemoglobin
- part of several enzymes
FUNCTIONS OF MANGANESE IN THE BODY
- cofactor for several enzymes
- deficiency symptoms are rare
- toxicity can cause nervous system disorders
FUNCTIONS OF FLUORIDE IN THE BODY
- involved in the formation of bones and teeth
- helps to make teeth resistant to decay
DEFICIENCY OF FLUORIDE
- susceptibility to tooth decay
FLUORIDE TOXICITY
- Fluorosis- pitting and discoloration of teeth
CHROMIUM
- enhances insulin action
- deficiency causes diabete-like condition
- there aren't any toxicity symptoms
MOLYBEDENUM
- cofactor for several enzymes
- no deficiency symptoms
- no toxicity symptoms except it effects reproduction in animals
NICKEL
- cofactor for enzymes
SILICON
- forms bone and collagen
VANADIUM
- used for normal reproduction
- forms bone and collagen
COBALT
- part of Vitamin D12
BORON
- involved in brain activity
ARSENIC
- treats leukemia but doesn' have a known role in the body
LEAD
- heavy metal
- toxic to body
- great lead poisoning in RIchmond city because of lead paint on old houses
- toxicity causes more problems in children than adults
MERCURY AND CADMIUM
- exposure from air pollution
FITNESS
- the characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity
- the ability to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to a physical challenge
- the body's ability to withstand stress of all kinds
SEDENTARY
- physicall inactive
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
- bodily movement produced by muscle contractions that substantially increase energy expenditure
EXERCISE
- planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement that promotes or maintains physical fitness
BENEFITS OF FITNESS
- restful sleep
- nutritional health- people are able to eat more food so they are less likely to develop nutrient deficiencies
- Optimal body composition
- Optimal bone density- builds bone strength
- Resistance to colds and other infectious diseases
- Lowers risks of some types of cancers
- strong circulation and lung function
- lowers risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes
- reduces risk of gallbladder disease in women
- lowers incidence and severity of anxiety and depression
- increases self-image
- longer life and increase in quality of life in later years
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PYRAMID
- be as active as possible every day
- Engage in vigorous activities regularly (3-5 days per week)
- Engage in strength and flexibility activities and enjoy leisure activities often (2-3 days per week)
- Limit sedentary activities
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A FITNESS ROUTINE
- Type of activity
- Frequency- number of occurrences per unit of time
- Intensity- the degree of exertion while exercising
- Duration- length of time
FLEXIBILITY
- the capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion
- the ability to bend and recover without injury
MUSCLE STRENGTH
- the ability of the muscles to work against resistance
MUSCLE ENDURANCE
- the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted
CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE
- the ability to perform large muscle, dynamic exercise to moderate to high intensity for prolonged periods
- increases heart or lung health
CONDITIONING
- the physical effect of training
- improved flexibility, strength and endurance
- Training- practicing an activity regularly which leads to conditioning
- conditioning is what you get and training is what you do
OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE
- the training principle that a body system, in order to improve, must be worked at frequencies, durations, or intensities that gradually increase physical demands
- do more each time
HYPERTROPHY
- growing larger with regards to muscles
- an increase in size and strength in response to use
ATROPHY
- becoming smaller with regard to muscles
- a decrease in size and strength because of disuse, undernutrition, or wasting diseases
WARM-UP
- 5 to 10 minutes of light activity, such as easy jogging or cycling, prior to workout to prepare the body for more vigorous activity
- mobilizes nergy sources
COOL-DOWN
- 5 to 10 minutes of light activity
- walking or stretching
- following a vigorous workout to return the body's core gradually to near normal temperature
- heart rate slows to prevent muscle cramping
MODERATE EXERCISE
- activity equivalent to the rate of exertion reached when walking at a speed of 4 miles per hour
WEIGHT TRAINING
- the use of free weights or weight machines to provide resistance for developing muscle strength and endurance
- A person's own body weight may also be used to provide resistance as when a person does push-ups, pull-ups, or abdominal crunches
- enhances sports performance
- increases lean mass to boost metabolism
- fit muscles use oxygen more efficiently so the heart's workload is reduced and fat is burned longer
VO2MAX
- the maximum rate of oxygen consumption by an individual at sea level
CARDIORESPIRATORY CONDITIONING
- improvements in heart and lung function and increased blood volume, brought about by aerobic training
- Cardiac output increases cardiorespiratory conditioning by increasing oxygen delivery. It means that the volume of blood discharged by the heart each minute is determined by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.
- Stroke volume is the amount of oxygenated blood the heart ejects towards the tissues at each beat
- slows resting pulse
- increases breathing efficiency
- improves circulation
- reduces blood pressure
BALANCED FITNESS PROGRAM
- intensity and type of physical activities that are best for one person may not be good for another.
- intensity depends on your present physical fitness
- type of PA depends on what you want to achieve and like too
- need aerobic activity, stretching, and weight training
ENERGY SYSTEMS
- With extreme intensity ATP-CP is burned. Creatine phosphate is a high energy compound in muscle cells that acts as a reservoir of energy that can maintain a steady supply of ATP. It provides the energy for short bursts of activity (8-10 sec)
- high to very hig intensity uses ATP from carbohydrates. Very high intensity also develops lactic acid
- Moderate intensity for more than 20 minutes burns ATP from fat.
ANAEROBIC EXERCISE
- associated with strength, agility, and split second surges of power
- the jump of the basketball player, the slam of the tennis serve, the heave of the weight lifter at the barbells
- depends mostly on glucose as the chief energy fuel
AEROBIC EXERCISE
- endurance activities of low to moderate intensity and long duration
- depends more on fat to provide energy
- ability to continue swimming,keep hiking to top of mountain, continue pedaling
- maintains health of the heart and circulatory system
GLYCOGEN STORAGE AND USE
- how much carbs a person eats influences how much glycogen is stored
- allows people to go longer before exhaustion
GLUCOSE USE
- an increase in intensity burns more glycogen. The muscles break down glucose to pyruvate anaerobically to produce ATP quickly
- At high intensities it is more difficult to clear lactic acid from the blood. Lactic acid is from accumulating pyruvate molecules and hydrogens.
- glucose is used mostly in the first 20 minutes of exercise and can eventually be used up
- the more trained the muscles the more glycogen the muscles will store
GLUCOSE DEPLETION
- after a couple of hours of strenuous activity, glucose stores are depleted causing the nervous system to come to a halt, and exertion almost becomes impossible
- Carbohydrate loading is used by endurace athletes to maximize glucose supply. A high carbohydrate diet is consumed after moderate exercise so the muscles are enabled to store glycogen beyond their normal capacities
GLUCOSE BEFORE AND AFTER ACTIVITY
- Before activity eat simple carbs because you want the glucose to absorb faster
- Delays exhaution during activity
- After activity a high carb meal is necessary within 15 minutes to restore gycogen and they will be replenished 300 times more than normal glycogen stores
RECOMMENDATIONS OF FAT INTAKE FOR ENDURANCE ATHLETES
- 20%-30% of energy intake from fat
- if less than 20% the athlete may fail to consume adequate energy and nutrients
BODY FAT STORES
- provides more than 70,000 kcal and fuel hours of activity without running out
- spot reducing doesn't work because the areas that have the most fat to spare donates the greatests amounts to the blood. These areas may not appear to be the fattiest.
FAT USE
- fat is not burned until after 20 minutes
- As intensity increases fat makes less of a contribution to the fuel mixture
- Training (repeated aerobic activity) permits the body to draw more heavily on fat. Hormones in body slow glucose release from the liver and speed up the use of fat instead
PROTEIN USE
- used in muscle building
- athletes retain more protein in their muscles and therefore burn more as fuel
- contributes only 10 percent of total fuel used
- to conserve proteins eat a diet adequate in and energy and rich in carbs
- protein needs for both endurance and strength athletes are higher than those of sedentary people. Protein is used more once glycogen has been depleted
- the higher the degree of training the less protein a person uses during an activity
VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS IN ACTIVITY
- don't enhance the performance of well nourished people
- deficiencies o vitamins and minerals do impede performance
VITAMIN E USED IN EXERCISE
- doesn' help activity
- doesn't improve performance unless you are in an extreme environment and it will help as an antioxidant
SPORTS ANEMIA
- a transient condition of low hemoglobin in the blood
- associated with the early stages of sports training or other strenuous activity
IRON IN EXERCISE
- deficiency is most common in female athletes
- iron is lost in sweat
- some athletes have small blood losses in the digestive tract
FLUID LOSSES VIA SWEAT
- sweat cools the body
- 1-2% causes loss of function
- Any more than 7% loss of body fluid will cause the person to be inable to function
HYPERTHERMIA
- an above normal body temperature that causes maximum sweating and can lead to heat stroke
- heat stroke is a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluids. The person won't sweat
HYPOTHERMIA
- a below normal body temperature
- occurs mostly in cold and wet environments
ELECTROLYTE LOSSES AND REPLACEMENT
- training improves electrolyte retention
- in an event that lasts for more than an hour pnly then do electrolytes need to be replenished.
- Don't use salt tablets because dehydration can be worsened.
- Dehydration symptoms are concentrated urine, dry skin, dry mouth
- Do not drink caffeine or alcohol because they will increase fluid loss
HYPONATREMIA
- a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood
- caused when their are greater fluid losses
- Over hydration dilutes the blood and will have some of the same effects as dehydration has on the body
AN ATHLETE'S DIET
- water
- nutrient dense foods that supply adequate vitamins and minerals for the energy the provide
- Carbohydrates- 8-10 kg should be consumed per kilogram of body weigth. Fiber should be avoided before physical activity
- Protein- lean towards foods that provide both carbs and protein like legumes, whole grains, and vegetables
- Fat- small amounts
- Pregame and postgame meals need to contain a lot of carbs
ERGOGENIC AIDS
- substances or techniques used in an attempt to enhance physical performance
- vitamins and minerals
PROTEIN POWDERS
- supply amino acids to body but it doesn' stimulate muscle growth
- may help with performance
- whey protein is a by product of cheese production and falsely promotes an increase in muscle mass. Whey is the watery part of milk that separates from curds
AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS
- causes a deficiency o famino acids because the amino acids compete for carriers for absorption.
- most healthy athletes eat well balanced diets and don't need amino acid supplements
CARNITINE
- a nonprotein amino acid made in the body from lysine that helps tranpsort fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane
- burns fat and spares glycogen during endurance events
- improves muscle strength and size but an excess can be harmful
CHROMIUM PICOLINATE
- a trace mineral supplement
- falsely promoted as building muscle, enhancing energy and burning fat
- enhances chromium absorption
CREATINE
- a nitrogen containing compound that combines with phosphate to form high energy compound creatine phosphate in muscles
- There are claims that creatine enhances energy use and muscle strength but more research is needed
CAFFEINE
- a natural stimulant found in many common foods and beverages, including coffee, tea, and chocolate
- may enhance endurance by stimulating fatty acid release
- high doses cause headaches, trembling, rapid heart rate, and other undesirable side effects
OXYGENATED WATER
doesn't do anything
DHEA and ANDROSTENEDION
- hormones made in the adrenal glands that serve as precursors to the male hormone testosterone
- falsely promoted as burning fat, building muscle, and slowing aging
- side effects include acne, aggressivenss, and liver enlargement
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (hGH)
- a hormone produced by the brain's pituitary gland that regulates normal growth and development
- athletes misuse this hormone to increase their height and strength
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
- drugs related to the male sex hormone, testosterone, that stimulates the development of lean body mass
- many side effects
FERTILITY
- the capacity of a woman to produce a normal ovum periodically and of a man to produce normal sperm
- the ability to reproduce
WOMEN GOALS PRIOR TO PREGNANCY
- achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
- choose an adequate and balanced diet
- be physically active
- Avoid harmful influences
PLACENTA
- the organ that develops inside the uterus early in pregnancy, through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen and returns carbon dioxide and other waste products to be excreted
- develops after implantation
ZYGOTE
- ovum + sperm
- First 2 weeks of fertilization
- It implants on the wall of the uterus before it begins to develop
EMBRYO
- After implantation
- the developing infant from 2 to 8 weeks after conception
FETUS
- the developing infant from 8 weeks to conception
CRITICAL PERIODS
- finite periods during development in which certain events occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages
- usually a period of rapid cell division
NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS FROM CRITICAL PERIODS
- caused by lack of folate
- Anencephaly- an uncommon and always fatal. Absence of the brain because upper end of neural tube won't close
- Spina bifida- most common type and is characterized by incomplete closure of the spinal cord
CHRONIC DISEASES FROM CRITICAL PERIODS
- may have root source to fetal development
- maternal nutrition during critical periods may permanently alter body functions such as blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and immune functions
- malnutrition during the crtical period of pancreatic cell growth is how type 2 diabetes develops in adulthood
FETAL PROGRAMMING
- the influence of substances during fetal growth on the development of diseases in later life
EPIGENETICS
- the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without change in the DNA sequence
PRE-TERM
- an infant born prior to the 38th week of pregnancy
- low birthweight
- most common in underweight women
POST-TERM
- an infant born after the 42nd week of pregnancy
- most common in overweight or obese women
- Cesarean sections are often needed because large newborns increase the likelihood of difficult labor and delivery or birth trauma
- C- section is a surgically assisted birth involving removal of the fetus by an incision into the uterus, usually be way of the abdominal wall
WEIGHT LOSS AFTER PREGNANCY
- pregnant women lose some weight at delivery
- Loses more weight as blood volume returns to normal and sheds accumulated fluids
- doesn't usually return to prepregnancy weight
- Fat is important for energy during delivery and breast feeding
EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY
- Staying active can improve fitness, prevent or manage gestational diabetes, facilitate labor, and reduce stress
- Also helps women lose excess weight after the pregnancy
- participate in low impact activities and avoid sports where they can fall or be hit
NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY
- nutrient requirements increase throughout pregnancy
- increase protein intake
- More essential fatty acids to aid in the growth and development of the fetus
- Vitamin B12, iron, and zinc needed for blood production and cell growth
- increase folate intake to reduce neural defects
- Increase Vit. D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride to aid in fetal bone development
NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTS
- prenatal vitamins have greater amounts of folate, iron, and calcium
- important for women who don't eat adequately and for thoses in high risk groups (more than one fetus, cigarette smokers, alcohol and drug abusers).
NAUSEA
- caused by hormonal changes in early pregnancy that increase sensitivity to the appearance, texture, or smell of foods
- eat foods that they feel like eating
- degree of nausea varies
CONSTIPATION AND HEMORRHOIDS
- constipation and hemoorhoids (swollen veins of the rectum) caused when fetus crowds intestinal organs
- also caused by inactivity and iron deficiency
HEARTBURN
- hormones relax digestive muscles while the growing fetus puts pressure on the mother's stomach
- stomach acid builds up in the esophagus
FOOD CRAVINGS AND AVERSIONS
- Craving- strong desires to eat certain food
- Aversions- strong desires to avoid certain foods
- caused by hormone induced changes in sensitivity to taste and smell
NONFOOD CRAVINGS
- Pica- laundry starch, clay, soil, or ice
- indicator of iron deficiency
HIGH-RISK PREGNANCY
- characterized by indicators that make it likely the birth will be surrounded by problems such as premature delivery, difficult birth, retarded growth, birth defects, and early infant death
- space birth of children out every 2 years
LOW BIRTHWEIGHT
- A birthweight of 5.5lb or less
- indicates probable poor health in the newborn and poor nutrition status in the mother during pregnancy, before pregnancy or both
- Normal birth weight is 6.5 to 8.5 lbs.
- a low birthweight infant born prematurely can actually have a large gestational age
GESTATIONAL DIABETES
- abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy
- return to normal after child birth
- most women have to go on insulin during pregnancy
- A women with preexisting diabetes also has a risk on the infant and the risks will be reduced if the diabetes is controlled
MALNUTRITION AND PREGNANCY
- Fertility is reduced with severe malnutrition and food deprivation
- Bad for early pregnancy because the mother has to support the growth of the baby and her own health with inadequate nutrient stores
- Consequences of malnutrition during pregnancy can cause fetal growth retardation, congenital malformations, spontaneous aboirtion, premature birth, and low infant birthweight
WIC
- Special Supplemntal Nutrition Program for Women, Infant, and Children
- helps womn with low income or nutritional risk that are pregnant, lactating, have a child under the age of 5, or postpartnum
HYPERTENSION
- preexisting complicates pregnancy and affects its outcome depending on how severe it is
- Transient hypertension of pregnancy means that high blood pressure develops in the second half of pregnancy and resolves after childbirth. It usually doesn't affect the outcome of pregnancy
PREECLAMPSIA
- a condition characterized by hypertension, fluid retention, and protein in urine
- Eclampsia is a severe stage of preeclampsia resulting in convlusions.
PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENTS
- 1 out of 20 babies in U.S. born to teenagers in 2000
- nourishing a growing fetus is difficult when the teenager hasn't grown completely
- increases risk of pregnancy complications like stillbirth, preterm births, and low birtweight infants
- common complications include iron deficiency anemia and prolonged labor
PREGNANCY IN OLDER WOMEN
- few complications like hypertension and diabetes
- C-section is more common
- maternal death rates are more common
- increase birth defects like down syndrome. Down syndrome causes mental retardation, short stature, and flattened facial features
PRACTICES INCOMPATIBLE WITH PREGNANCY
- alcohol
- medicinal drugs
- herbal supplements
- illicit drugs (crosses placenta)
- Smoking and chewing tobacco which can also cause SIDS, reduces blood flow, and causes low birth weight
- environmental contaminants (mercury or lead)
- Foodborne illness can cause early miscarriage depending on the bacteria
- Vitamin-mineral megadoses especially since vitamin A causes malformations of the nervous system
- Caffeine- crosses the placenta but fetus can only metabolize so much
- Weight loss dieting- causes nutrient deficiency and inadequate fetal development
- sugar substitutes
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
- the unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant
- most common of death of infants between second week and end of the first year of life
MAMMARY GLANDS
- glands of the female breast that secrete milk and where milk is stored
LACTATION
- production and secretion of breast milk for the purpose of nourishing an infant
PROLACTIN
- a hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland that acts on the mammary glands to initiate and sustain milk production
- how often the baby breast feeds determines how much milk is produced
OXYTOCIN
- a hormone that stimulates the mammary glands to eject milk during lactation and the uterus to contract during childbirth
LET-DOWN REFLEX
- the reflex that forces milk to the front of the breast when the infant begins to nurse
BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR BABY
- significantly higher IQ
- bonding with mother
- regulation of temperature
- visual activity
- less ear infections, less GI problems, less respiratory problems (immunity passed to child)
- impacts muscular jaw and stronger teeth
BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR MOTHER
-losses weight quicker
- decreases breast cancer
- conserves iron stores
- delays the return of regular ovulation
- less waste
- cheaper
MOTHER'S NUTRIENT NEEDS DURING LACTATION
- needs an extra 500 calories
- always feels hungry but shouldn't eat in excess
- increase carbs and fibers even more then during pregnancy. Protein and fatty acid consumption remains the same
- prenatal vitamins are still necessary- nutritional inadequacies reduce the quantity of the breast milk not the quality
- Water- not linked to milk production
- Iron supplements to replenish iron stores
- Foods with spicy flavors may change the taste of milk and annoy some infants. Stick to familiar flavors
PRACTICE INCOMPATIBLE WITH LACTATION
- alcohol
- medicinal drugs
- illicit drugs
- smoking
- environmental contaminants
- caffeine in moderation
MATERNAL HEALTH DURING LACTATION
- HIV and AIDS can be transmitted to an infant through breast milk
- Diabetes (type I)- mothers need to adjust their energy intakes and insulin doses
- Postpartum Amenorrhea- absence of menstrual periods following childhood. Lactation delay the onset of periods even more
- Breast Health- shrink back to original size even while breast feeding. Breastfeedig doesn't cause breasts to sag only aging does
FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME (FAS)
- a cluster of physical, behavioral, and ognitive abnormalities
- assoicated with prenatal alcohol exposure especially in the first month or two of pregnancy
- male alcohol consumption can also hurt fetal development
- includes facial malformations, growth retardation, and central nervous disorders
ALCOHOL RELATED NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER (ARND)
- abnormalities in the CNS and cognitive development associated with prenatal alcohol exposure
ALCOHOL-RELATED BIRTH DEFECTS (ARBD)
- malformations in the skeletal and organ systems (heart, kidneys, eyes, ears)
- associated with prenatal alcohol exposure
ENERGY AND NUTRIENT NEEDS IN INFANTS
- infants grow rapidly and their BMR is high and they require 560 kcalories a day
- An infants birthweight doubles by 5 months and triples by one year
- carbs, fat, and protein are all important
- double the amount of vitamins and minerals are needed compared to body size. Especially iodine, vit. A, C, D,and E
- the younger the infant the greater the % of body weight is water. Formula and breast milk provide enough water for the infant
FREQUENCY AND DURATION OF BREAST MILK
- infants eat breast milk more frequently than formula because it is easily digested
- 8-12 feedings a day in the first few weeks. Every 2-3 hours
- older children receive milk less often but more in each sitting
ENERGY AND NUTRIENTS IN BREAST MILK
- Alpha-lactalbumin- a major protein in human bresat milk as opposed to casein a major protein in cow's milk. This allows for less protein to be in breast milk but the quantity is better
- Fat is most prevalent, followed by carbs, and then protein
- infants need vit. D supplementation. It is the only vitamin not ample in breast milk
- good source of calcium but not flouride
- low in sodium
COLOSTRUM
- a milklike secretion from the breast, present during the first day or so after delivery beforem milk appears.
- It is rich in protecive fibers
BIFIDUS FACTORS
- factors in colostrum and breast milk that favor the growth of the friendly bacterium lactobacilus bifidus in the infant's intestinal tract
- Less desirableintestinal inhabitants will not flourish
LACTOFERRIN
- a protein in breast milk that binds iron and keeps it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacteria
LACTADHERIN
- a protein in breast milk that attacks diarrhea-causing viruses
HEALTH BENEFITS TO INFANTS FROM BREAST MILK
- immunological protection
- allergy and disease protection- offers protection against allergies and development of cardiovasculat disease
- protects against excessive weight gain later on
- positive effects on later intelligence
WEAN
- gradually replacing breast milk with infant formula or other foods appropriate to an infant's diet
INFANT FORMULA COMPOSITION
- very similar to breast milk
- a little more protein, a little less fat, and a little more carbs
RISKS OF FORMULA FEEDING
- contain no protective antibodies but vaccinations, purified water, and clean environments protect infants from infections
- contaminated water is a problem in underdeveloped areas
HYPOALLERGENIC FORMULAS
- clinically tested infant formulas that do not provoke reactions in 90% of infants and children with confimed cow's milk allergy
- must demonstrate nutritional suitability to support infant growth and development
- extensively hydrolyzed and free amino acid based formulas are examples
NURSING BOTTLE TOOTH DECAY
- extensive tooth decay due to prolonged tooth contact with formula, milk, fruit juice, or other carbohydrate-rich liquid offered to an infant in a bottle
PRE-TERM INFANTS
- born with limited nutrient stores
- nutrient absorption of fat and calcium is immature
- miss out on the transfer of long chain fatty acids, arachidonic acid, and DHA.
- pre-term breast milk is well suited to meet the infant's needs
- given smaller quantities more frequently
INTRODUCING COW'S MILK
- From age 1 to 2 the child needs whole fat milk
- After age 2 you can switch to 1%, 2%, or skim
- increases calcium
- low vitamin C interferes with iron absorption
- diabetes is more common in children that are fed cow's milk before 12 months.
WHEN TO INTRODUCE SOLID FOODS
- begin eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months with breast milk or formula
- determined by infant's needs and developmental readiness
CHOICE OF INFANT FOODS
- introduce single ingredient foods in small portion for 4 to 6 days to prevent allergy
- most common allergies are peanuts, milk, eggs, and strawberries
- introduce iron content (iron fortified cereal)
- serve vitamin C rich foods to increase iron absorption
- omit honey, corn syrup, and choking foods (up to age 3 or 4)
- meats, ironfortified cereals, enriched whole grain breads, fruits, and vegetables should be balanced after one year of age
- Don't allow to much juice or milk because they will refuse other foods
BOTULISM
- an often fatal foodborned illness caused by the ingestion of foods containing a toxin produced by bacteria that grow without oxygen
MILK ANEMIA
- iron deficiency anemia that develops when an excessive milk intake displaces iron-rich foods from the diet
- usualy occurs after one year when milk is introduced
MEALTIMES WITH TODDLERS
- teach structure by scheduling meal times
- allow toddlers to make a mess because it will make eating fun
- Don't force foods because it will cause food struggles. Most toddlers have to have a food introduced 15 times before it is accepted
- Provide nutrition foods and let children choose which ones and how much they will eat
- Limit sweet and don't use it as a reward
- Make mealtimes enjoyable by not turning it into a battleground
ENERGY AND NUTRIENT NEEDS IN CHILDHOOD
- A 1 year old needs 800 kilocalories a day and a 6 year old needs twice as much
- energy needs per kilogram of body weight decline gradually
- inactive children can become obese even when their food intake is low
- After one year carb recommendations are the same as adults and fiber recommendation should be equal to the child's age + 5 grams
- recommendation of 30-40% of energy in fat
- protein needs increase slightly with age
- vitamin and mineral needs increase with age especially iron
- Routine supplementation is not neceaary
- Supplements of vitamin D, iron, and flouride can be somewhat beneficial
- Children eat smaller servings than adults
HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN
- an average child up to age 10 needs to eat every 4 hours to maintain blood glucose concentration
- When a child misses one meal it effects their school performance
- eating breakfast helps meet the nutrient needs each day
- Iron transport oxygen within cells and it makes neurotransmitters
- Iron deficiency not only causes an energy crisis but also affects attention span and learning ability
MALNUTRITION AND LEAD
- malnourised children are vulnerable to lead poisoning
- more lead is absorbed when stomach are empty, or if they have lwo intakes of calcium, zinc, vitamin c, viramin D, or iron
- Pica is common- most children will eat dirt or chips of paint
- children develop learning diabilities and behavioral problems
HYPERACTIVITY
- inattentive and impulsive behavior that is more frequent and severe than is typical of others a similar age
- professionally called ADHD
- sugar dosn't cause it
MISBEHAVING
- sugar effects behavior but has no clinical effect
- children need regular physical activity and sleep
ASYMPTOMATIC ALLERGY
- a person who produces antibodies without having any symptoms
- the symptoms will usually develop later on because immue response began early
SYMPTOMATIC ALLERGY
- a person who produces antibodies and has symptoms
- rash
- nausea, vomiting
- wheezing
- stomachache
- hives
- diarrhea
FOOD ALLERGY
- an adverse reaction to food that involves an immune response
FOOD INTOLERANCE
- similar symptoms to an allergy but has no immune response
- there is usually a GI problem
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
- a life threatening whole body allergic reaction
- treated with epinephrine a hormone of the adrenal gland administered by injection to counteract anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure
CHILDHOOD OBESITY
- parental obesity doubles the chances that a young child will become an obese adult. Nonobese children with neither parent obese have a less than 10 percent chance of becoming obese in adulthood
- diet and physical inactivity are also important implications
- Overweight children begin puberty earlier, grow taller than peers at first, stop growing at a shorter height, develop greater bone and muscle mass
- have high levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides and can cause type II diabetes
- many emotional and social problems
- children eat how parents do
- a child's diet should maintain their weight as they grow taller, weight loss isn't recommended
- regular vigorous activity can improve a child's weight, body composition and physical fitness
- weight loss programs that involve parents and other caregivers in treatment report greater success
- it is important to focus on how to eat rather than what to eat
MEALTIMES AT HOME
- honor children's preferences
- children should help plan and prepare meals to encourage children to eat the foods they have prepared
- avoid power struggles
- choking prevention
- play before mealtime
- snacking- 3 meals and 1 to 2 snacks (limit candy, soda, and concentrated treats)
- Parents should serve as role models
MEALS AT SCHOOLS
- U.S. government assists schools financially so every child can receive nutritious meals at a reasonable cost
- local school districts pay little
- studies have reported that children who participate in school food programs show improvements in learning
- Although healthful lunches are served the problem is getting kids to eat them
- short lunch periods and long waiting lines
- other a la carte foods are sold like pizza, carbonated beverages, and food in vending machines that compete with healthy food
- Nutrition education is offered in all public schools so children can make healthful food choices
ADOLESCENCE NUTRITION
- adolescence is the period from puberty to maturity
- growth spurts begin at 10 or 11 for females and 12 or 13 for males
- energy needs vary greatly
- additional vitamin D is not needed
- iron need increases for females (menstruation) and males (lean body mass develops)
- calcium requirements reach its peak because adolescence is a crucial time for bone development
- eat more food from different food groups especially snacks
- soft drinks are only acceptable when the adolescent can affort the kilocalories and are meeting their calcium needs. Caffeine can cause anxiety
- 1/3 of adolescents meals are eaten away from home and good choices need to be made
- food choices are influenced by peers
MARIJUANA
- enhances enjoyment of eating, especially sweets
- chemicals play roles in regulating appetite, pain, and memory
- 1/2 of high school students have tried marijuana
COCAINE
- stimulates the nervous system and elicits the stress response
- drives away feelings of fatigue
- can cause immediate death
- weight loss isn't common but many eating disorders develop
ECSTASY
- signals the nerve cells to dump all their stored serotonin at once and prevents its reabsorption.
- alters a person's mood but damages nerve cells and impairs memory
- tend to lose weight
NUTRITION PROBLEMS OF DRUG ABUSERS
- money that should be spent on food is spent on drugs
- during highs food interest is lost
- use of drugs that depress appetite
- may contract diseases through intravenous drugs
- medicines used to treat drug abuse may alter nutrition status
SMOKING AND ALCOHOL ABUSE NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS
- Adolescents that abuse alcohol don't consume enough calories
- smoking and smokeless tobacco suppress appetite. Also the need for vitamin c increases
- 80% of adult smokers begin before age 18
LIFE EXPECTANCY
- the average number of years lived by people in a given society
- improved nutrition and an abundant supply of food lengthens life expectancy
- 75 to 80 years
- more older people and less younger people
LIFE SPAN
- the maximum number years of life attainable by a member of a species
- 130 years
- hasn't increased dramatically
LONGEVITY
- long duration of life
- extended by slowing or perhaps preventing aging and its accompany diseases
QUALITY OF LIFE
- a person's perceived physical and mental well-being
PHYSIOLOGICAL AGE
- a person's age as estimated from her or his body's health and probable life expectancy
- increased when a person sleeps well, eats well balanced meals, is physically active, doesn't drink alcohol, smoke, and has a healthy body weight
CHRONOLOGICAL YEARS
- a person's age in years from his or her date of birth
EXERCISE GUIDELINES FOR OLDER ADULTS
- Do exercises that incorporate endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility
- start easy
- progess gradually to goal
DIET MANIPULATION
- When energy is restricted in animals they have fewer age related diseases and life is prolonged
- moderate restriction in humans can improve health
STRESS
- any threat to a person's well being
- a demand placed on the body to adapt
- the body responses to stress by using up its body's reserves and nerves and hormones
- chronic stress decreases longevity of life
BODY WEIGHT ON THE AGING PROCESS
- Low body weight may be more detrimental to older adults than high ones
- older people tend to lose more bone and muscle and gain body fat
- Sarcopenia- loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality. It can be prevented through strenth building exercises
IMMUNE SYSTEM IN OLDER ADULTS
- declines with age
- compromised by nutrient deficiencies
- antibiotics lose their effectiveness
DYSPHAGIA
- difficulty in swallowing
- occurs in 1/3 of people greater than 60 years old
- increases bacterial growth
- decreases HCL
- decrease in intrinsic factor causes deficiency of vit B12
- decrease of motility
- decrease constipation
TOOTH AND SENSORY PROBLEMS IN OLDER ADULTS
- difficulty chewing because loss of tooth
- decrease taste and smell
- decrease eye sight
PSYCHOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC, and SOCIAL CHANGES
- psychologically depression is common, causing loss of appetrite. Depression results in heartache and loneliness
- Economically older adults have higher incomes that cohorts in previous generations
- malnutrition is most common in hospitals and nursing homes
- malnutrition is also more common in people who live alone especially men
ENERGY NEEDS IN OLDER ADULTS
- they have a decrease sense of thirst leading to an increase in dehydration
- their total calories are decreased which also results in a decrease of protein but carbs are needed to protect protein. Fat needs to be moderate in order to enhance flavors and help fat-soluble vitamins absorb.
VITAMIN AND MINERAL NEEDS IN OLDER ADULTS
- consume vitamin B12 from supplements and fortified foods. Its bioavailability is better than from foods
- Obtain vitamin D and calcium from dairy products which are normally consumed less. Vitamin D is also lost because older people spend less time in the sun
- Iron problems decrease in women because they don't menstrate anymore
- older people need to eat more food rather than take supplements but if they do take a supplement it should be a multivitamin
CATARACTS
-thickenings of the eye lenses that impair vision and can lead to blindness
MACULAR DEGENERATION
- deterioration of the macular area of the eye that can lead to loss of central vision and eventual blindness
- the macula is a small oval, yellowish region in the center of the retina that provides the sharp, straight ahead vision so critical to rading and driving
ARTHRITIS
- inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural damage
- treatment includes medication and surgery which will improve mobility and decrease pain but will not cure it
OSTEOARTHRITIS
- a painful, degenerative disease of the joints that occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint deteriorates
- joint structure is damaged, with loss of function
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
- a disease of the immune system involving painful inflammation of the joints and related structures
SENILE DEMENTIA
- the loss of brain function beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and memory that occurs with aging
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
- a degenerative disease of the brain involving memory loss and major structural changes in neuron networks
- antioxidants may delay or prevent
FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
- Elderly nutrition program- priority is based on income and people over 60
- Congregate meals are delivered in a community setting
- meals on wheels is delivered to the elderly's home
MEALS FOR SINGLES
- spend wisely
- be creative
HOW DRUGS ALTER NUTRITION ABSORPTION
- change the acidity of the digestive tract (antacids)
- alter digestive juices
- alter motility of the digestive tract (laxatives)
- inactivate enzyme systems
- damage mucosal cells (chemo)
- binding nutrients (antacids binds phosphorus)
- drugs can compete for absorption with food. For example methotrexate can cause a seconday deficiency of folate
ANTIGENS
- substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system
PHAGOCYTES
- white blood cells (neutrophils and macrophages) that have the ability to ingest and destroy foreign substances
- Phagocytosis is the process by which phagocytes engulf and destroy foreign materials
- Cytokines are special proteins secreted by phagocytes that activate the immune response
LYMPHOCYTES
- white blood cells that participate in acquired immunity
- B-cells and T-cells
- B-cells produce immunoglobins that act like antibodies (large proteins of the blood and body fluids produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules
- T-cells attack antigens by producing a chemical
- white blood cells are divided into phagocytes and lymphocytes
SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS
- multiple factors operating together in such a way that their combined effects are greater than the sum of their individual effects
NUTRIENTS KNOWN TO EFFECT IMMUNITY
- deficiency in any of these have a negative imact on immunity
- protein(PEM)
- fatty acids
- vitamins A, E, B6, and C
- Folate
- Iron
- Zinc
- Selenium
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
- infections from microorganisms that normally do not cause disease in the general population but can cause great harm in people once their immune systems have been compromised
CD4 + T-Lymphocytes
- circulating white blood cells that contain the CD4+protein on their surfaces and are a necessary component of the immune system
HIV WASTING SYNDROME
- an involuntary loss of more than 10% of body weight, common in AIDS and cancer
- begins early due to decreased nutrient intake, malabsorption and excessive nutrient losses
- treat malnutrition and prevent disease progession
NUTRITION SUPPORT FOR HIV
- When zinc concentration is normalized the rate of opportunistic infections declines, and disease progression slows
- No specific dietary strategy but nutrient recommendations are made based on the complications that arise in each case
- HIV patients are vulnerable to foodborne infections so they should avoid raw or undercooked foods and fungal based foods
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN THE U.S.
- Heart disease
- cancers
- strokes
- impacted by nutrition
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
- all diseases of the heart and blood vessels
CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD)
- the damage that occurs when the blood vessels carrying blood to the heart become narrow and occluded
- caused by atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries
- Atherosclerosis occurs because of plaques or fatty streaks in the arterial walls
CAUSE OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
- vessels are damaged by LDL, high blood pressure, and toxins causing an inflammatory responses
- The c-reactive protein is produced and enhances immunity by promoting phagocytosis and activiating platelets. Its presence may be used to assess a person's risk of an impending heart attack or stroke
- Free radicals produced from inflammatory response oxidize LDL and the macrophages engulf it. These macrophages swell and eventually become the cells of plaque
PLATELETS
- tiny disc-shaped bodies in the blood
- important in blood clot formation which can also cause atherosclerosis
- Eicosanoids- regulate many of the body's activities like blood pressure, blood clot formation, blood vessel contractions, immune response, and nerve impulse transmissions
- Thrombosis- a blood vessel is restricted or closed off by a blood clot that sticks to plaque.
- An embolism is caused when the clot is broken by blood pressure and floats through the blood
ANGINA
- a painful feeling of tightness or pressure in and around the heart, often radiating to the back, neck, and arms
- caused by lack of oxygen to an area of heart muscle
- Heart attack can result because of sudden tissue death caused by blockages of vessels that feed the heart muscle
- Stroke is when blood flow is restricted to the brain
NONMODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS FOR CHD
- increasing age
- male gender
- family history
MODIFIABLE RISK FACTORS FOR CHD
- high blood LDL cholesterol
- low blood HDL cholesterol
- high blood pressure
- diabetes
- obesity
- physical inactivity
- cigarette smoking
- An antherogenic diet (high in saturated fat)
METABOLIC SYNDROME
- a combination of risk factors- insulin resistance, hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, and abdominal obesity- that greatly increases a person's risk of developing CHD
- Insulin resistance is the condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose
DIETARY FACTORS PROTECTING AGAINST CHD
- viscous fiber to lower cholesterol
- omega-3 fatty acids
- Alcohol in moderation raises HDL and prevents clotting
- intake of folate, vit B12, vit B6 reduces homocysteine
- vitamin E slows progression of plaque formation
- Soy lowers blood cholesterol
- increase phytosterols found in plant foods because it competes with receptors for cholesterol
- physical activity
- lipid-lowering drugs
HYPERTENSION
- silent killer
- risk for heart disease and stroke because there is so much strain on the heart to work harder.
- unknown cause
- When blood flow is reduced to the kidneys the kidneys respond by raising blood pressure. The pressure doesn't only increase in the kidneys but all over the body.
RISK FACTORS FOR HYPERTENSION
- smoking
- alcohol- > 2 drinks per day
- high blood lipids
- diabetes
- male gender and increase in women after menopause
- develops in people over 60
- heredity
- obesity
- greatest in the african American population
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING RISK OF HYPERTENSION
- weight control
- physical activity
- alcohol in moderation
- drug theraphy (antihypertensive and diauretics)- its difficult to get people to use medications because they can't feel the problems from hypertension
TYPE 1 DIABETES
- less common
- the person produces no insulin due to an autoimmune disorder.
- antibodies are developed to insulin and destroys pancreatic cells that produce the insulin causing an insulin deficiency
- coordinate meals with insulin administration
- maintain optimal nutritional status
TYPE 2 DIABETES
- the more coommon type
- fat cells resist insulin
- develops mostly in peopl over 40 years old, are obese, have family history
- weight loss improves response to insulin and delays the need for medication
IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
- blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes
- prediabetic condition
DIABETES COMPLICATIONS
- diseases of the large blood vessels from early atherosclerosis
- diseases of the small blood vessel like damage to the eyes or loss of kidney function
- diseases of the nerves cuasing nerve tissue degeneration of neuropathy (loss of sensation
GENETIC AND IMMUNE FACTORS CAUSING CANCERS
- all cancers have a genetic component in that a mutation causes abnormal cell growth
- family history gives a greater risk for cancer
- drugs suppress immunity that can cause cancer
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS CAUSING CANCERS
- Initiators- factors that cause mutations that give rise to cancer
- Promoters- factors that favor the development of cancer once it has started
- Antipromoters- factors that oppose the development of cancer
DIETARY FACTORS CAUSING CANCERS
- carcinogens (initiators)substances or agents that are capable of causing cancers. May be in foods like preservatives (lunch meats)
- Cancer promoters are highly saturated and trans fat diets
- Antipromoters are fruits and vegetables
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING THE RISK OF CANCER
- eat a variety of healthful foods by emphasizing plant sources
- adopt a physically active lifestyle
- maintain a healthful weight throughout life
- limit alcoholic beverage consumption
- do not smoke or use tobacco in any form
POPULATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHRONIC DISEASES
- vaccinate to prevent measles
- fluoridate water to prevent dental caries
- fortify grains with folate to prevent neural tube defects
INDIVIDUAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHRONIC DISEASES
-peoples hereditary susceptibility to disease and their responsiveness to dietary measures vary
- human genome will provide knowledge neeed to create specific recommendations for each individual. The genome is a complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell