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167 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS
Acid Group: COOH
Amino Group: NH2
Side Group: R and it varies for each amino acid
- 20 common amino acids
NONESSSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
- dispensable amino acids
- The body can synthesize them for itself
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
- indispenable amino acids
- 9 amino acids that can't be made at all by the body or is not synthesized in sufficient amounts.
CONDITIONALLY ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
- ordninarily nonessential amino acids but different circumstances cause the nonessential amino acid to become an essential one.
- Some conditions are: not enough precursors or disease states
PEPTIDE BOND
- unique chemical configuration and it unites each amino acid to the next.
- COOH combines with NH2 to form C-N bond
- Connected by the condensation reaction.
DIPEPTIDE
- two amino acids bonded together
- water is removed in the condensation reaction
TRIPEPTIDE
- 3 amino acids linked together
POLYPEPTIDE
- greater than 10 amino acids linked together.
- Disulfide bonds pull non linked proteins together.
AMINO ACID SEQUENCES
- determines shape of polypeptide chain
- uses the 20 amino acids which can create a tremendous amount of different sequences.
HEMAGLOBIN
- carries oxygen in the blood
- Iron activates the protein and is stored in the Heme (the nonprotein portion)
PROTEIN DENATURATION
- uncoils when it denatures and loses its shape and function
- Caused by: heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
PROTEIN DIGESTION IN STOMACH
- HCL uncoils protein so that the digestive enzymes can act on the peptide bond.
- Pepsinogen is a proenzyme that is converted into pepsin by HCL.
- Pepsin is an enzyme cleaving large polypeptides into small polypeptides.
SMALL DIGESTION IN SMALL INTESTINE
- Proteases are enzymes that hydrolyze protein. They break proteins into smaller chains in the intestinal and pancreas
- Peptidases split di and tripeptides into single amino acids.
PROTEIN ABSORPTION
- Specific carriers transport amino acids into the intestinal cells.
- Amino acids not used by the intestinal cells are transported across the cell membrane into capillaries towards the liver.
ENZYME/AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS MISCONCEPTIONS
- Don't work outside of the GI tract because they are digested like any other protein.
- usually taken to build muscle- it won't work
DELIVERING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- DNA is the template for making RNA
- mRNA attaches to ribosomes and carries messages to the rest of the cell by specifying the sequence in which the aa are to line up to make a strand of protein.
LINING UP AMINO ACIDS IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- tRNA brings aa from the cell fluid to the mRNA
- When the mRNA calls for a specific aa the tRNA with that aa attaches itself to the RNA.
- Each tRNA attaches itself when called and the tRNA are binded by enzymes.
- The protein strand is released and the tRNA is free to go load up on more aa.
SEQUENCING ERRORS IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- point substituion can cause an altered sequence of aa
- This can cause sickle cell anemia which is extremely painful and dangerous because it interferes with oxygen transport and blood flow.
NUTRIENTS AND GENE EXPRESSION IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- cells can regulate gene expression to make the type of protein, in the amounts and at the rate, they need.
- Ex: The pancrease makes insulin proteins, but not hemaglobin
ROLES OF PROTEINS
- building material
- enzymes
- hormones
- regulation of fluid balance
- acid base regulation
- transport proteins
- immunity
- source of energy
PROTEINS AS BUILDING MATERIAL
- important for growth and maintanence.
- Matrix- gives form to a dveloping structure
- Collagen- connective tissue for scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of teeth and bones are made.
PROTEINS AS ENZYMES
- proteins which facilitates a chemical reaction without being changed in the process
- Molecules bind to active sites of the enzyme, they either form a complex or the enzyme breaks a molecule apart, the compounds than leave the enzyme.
- catabolic- breaks substances apart
- anabolic- builds substances
PROTEINS AS HORMONES
- hormones switch protein machinery on or off in response to the body's needs.
REGULATION OF FLUID BALANCE
- proteins attract water
- Edema is swelling becauseof excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial fluid and the fluid in the body's tissue lacks protein
ACID BASE REGULATION
- Acidosis- above normal acidity in the blood and body fluids
- Alkalosis- above normal alkalinity in the blood and body fluids.
TRANSPORT PROTEINS
- acrs as a gate for substances to move inside and outside of the cell.
IMMUNITY IN PROTEINS
- Immunity- the body's ability to defend itself against diseases
- Antibodies- large proteins that combine with and inactivate the foreign invaders (antigens). They are produced in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules.
- Antigens- substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system. Types are a bacteria, virus, toxin, or allergy.
PROTEIN TURNOVER IN METABOLISM
- the degradation and synthesis of protein.
- Amino acid pool is the supply of aa derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cels and circulate blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy.
NITROGEN BALANCE IN METABOLISM
- the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time
- indicator of protein turnover
- + Nitrogen balance- makes more protein than breaks it down- this should occur in growing children and pregnant women.
- Negative nitrogen balance- breaks down more protein than is coming in- occurs in starvation or severe stress
USE OF AMINO ACIDS IN PROTEIN METABOLISM
- using aa to make proteins
- use aa to make nonessential aa
- use aa to make other compounds like neurotransmitters
- use aa for energy and glucose if carbs or fat aren't present.
DEAMINATION IN PROTEIN METABOLISM
- breaking down aa (NH2)
- This will result in ammonia so liver convert it to urea which isn't as toxic
- The kidneys filter urea out of the blood
AMINO ACIDS USED FOR FAT IN METABOLISM
- AA is converted to fat when there are too many aa and carb intake is not adequate.
HIGH QUALITY PROTEINS
- dietary proteins contain all the essential aa in relatively the same amounts that human beings require.
- They may also contain nonessential aa.
- 2 factors that determine whether a protein is high quality is its digestibility and aa composition.
PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY
- a measure of the amount of aa absorbed from a given protein intake.
- absorption of aa from animals are 99%
- absorption of aa from plants are 70-99%
AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN PROTEIN QUALITY
- Limiting amino acid means that the essential aa found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body.
- essential amino acids are not absorbed
REFERENCE PROTEIN
- a standard against which to measure the quality of other proteins
COMPLEMENTARY PROTEINS
- 2 or more dietary proteins whose aa assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential aa missing from one are supplied by the other.
PROTEIN IN FOOD LABELS
- give the quantity of proteins
- The daily value of proteins is not required on food labels unless the product makes a protein claim
- The daily value is 50g of protein and 10% of a 2000kcal diet
PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM)
- a deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and instances in which they overlap.
ACUTE PEM
- occurs in a recent severe food restriction
- characterized in children by thinness for height (wasting)
CHRONIC PEM
- caused by long term food deprivation
- characterized in children by short height for age (stunted growth)
MARASMUS
- results from a severe deprivation or impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
- loss of muscle or fat
KWASHIORKOR
- results either from inadequate protein intake, or from infections
- symptoms are big round bellies and swollen limbs.
- enlarged liver
MARASMUS-KWASHIORKOR MIX
- characterized by edema of kwashiorkor with the wasting of marasmus
- suffers from malnutrition and infections
DYSENTERY
- an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea
REHABILITATION FOR PEM
- hydrate onself
- eat small amounts of food
- once the person is used to eating food then they should add protein back in.
HEART DISEASE RELATED TO PROTEIN
- if the protein arginine is absent the risk of heart disease increases. Arginine is a protective factor for heart disease because it slws the progression of atherosclerosis.
CANCER RELATED TO PROTEIN
- High intakes of animal proteins can cause some types of cancer
OSTEOPOROSIS RELATED TO PROTEIN
- If you increase protein than calcium is secreted more and osteoporosis will be prevented
WEIGHT CONTROL RELATED TO PROTEIN
- adding some protein to the diet helps control weight because of satiety
- The food that protein is in has to be low in fat.
KIDNEY DISEASE RELATED TO PROTEIN
- Can't handle high protein intake because of ammonia.
RECOMMENDED INTAKE FOR PROTEIN
- RDA
- 0.8 g/kg/day
- 10%-35% of energy intake
- 2-3 serving according to the food guide pyramid for vegetarian diets and 2 servings for normal food guides.
PROTEIN IN ABUNDANCE
- most people in the U.S. and Canada receive more protein than needed
- protein supplements are not necessary and amino acid supplements can be harmful.
METABOLISM
- the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells.
- Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
- the process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from CO2 and water.
FUEL
- compounds that cells can use for energy.
- Major fuels: glucose, fatty acids, aa
- Comes from food
ANABOLISM
- reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones
- require energy
CATABOLISM
- reactions in which large molecules are borken down to smaller ones
- releases energy
COUPLED REACTIONS
- ADP and P use energy to create ATP
- ATP captures and stores the energy
- Energy is released from ATP when the phosphate bond is broken and it turns into ADP and P.
METABOLIC WORK OF THE LIVER
- Metabolizes, packages, stores, or ships nutrients to other organs
- Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, or poisons and the by products are excreted
ENZYMES
- facilitate metabolic reactions without being changed in the process
COFACTORS
- substance that facilitates enzyme action
- both organic like vitamins and inorganic like minerals.
COENZYMES
- complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity
- can only be organic so it has to be vitamins.
GLYCOLYSIS
- the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate.
- does not require oxygen (anaerobic)
- doesn't yield much energy
- coenzymes are required for all pathways
PYRUVATE
- When the body needs energy fast it goes through an anaerobic pathway. In this case pyruvate is converted into lactic acid.
- When the body has enough oxygen it goes through an aerobic pathway and the pyruvate breaks down into acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA will either make ATP or make fat.
KREB'S CYCLE or TCA CYCLE
- hydrogens and electrons are removed from carbohydrates and go to the electron transport chain
- 8 electrons are removed from one cycle
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
- use electrons, H+, and coenzyme to create ATP.
- energy captured in form of ATP
- Series of proteins that carry electrons and move them down the chain
- End product is ATP- Water and carbon dioxide are produced and oxygen is consumed.
CORI CYCLE
- the path from muscle lactic acid (goes to liver) to glucose (returns to the muscles).
- lactic acid becomes an energy source
METABOLIC PATHWAYS
metabolic pathways
GLYCEROL TO PYRUVATE
- Glycerol makes glucose or pyruvate.
- Does not make fatty acids
FATTY ACIDS TO ACETYL COA
- fatty oxidation- converts fatty acids to acetyl coA.
- 2 carbons are cleaved at a time.
- 7 steps to cleave 16 carbons
- fatty acids can' synthesize glucose only acetyl coA.
AMINO ACIDS TO ACETYL COA
- ketogenic aa only synthesize acetyl-CoA, but acetyl-CoA can't synthesize amino acids.
- glucogenic aa synthesize glucose by becoming pyruvate which than will go to acetyl CoA.
CARBOHYDRATES ROLE IN METABOLISM
- yields energy and glucose
- yields amino acids when nitrogen is available and can yield nonessential aa.
- yields fat stores
FATTY ACID LIPIDS ROLE IN METABOLISM
- yields energy
- does not yield glucose
- does not yield amino acids or body proteins
- yields fat stores
GLYCEROL LIPIDS ROLE IN METABOLISM
- yields energy
- yields glucose when carbohydrate is unavailable
- yields amino acids and body proteins when nitrogen is available and can yield nonessential aa.
- yields fat stores
PROTEINS ROLE IN METABOLISM
- yields energy
- yields glucose when carbohydrates are unavailable
- yields amino acids and body proteins
- yields fat stores
OXALOACETATE
- carbohydrate intermediate of the TCA cycle
- needed in the first step and is synthesized in the last step
- 4 carbon that can't be made from fat
- made from pyruvate or certain aa.
MOLECULES PRODUCED FROM ENERGY METABOLISM
- 1 glucose molecule yields 36-38 ATP
- 1 sixteen carbon fatty acid yields 129 ATP
- 16 caron fatty acid yields over four times that of a glucose molecule
FEASTING (OVEREATING)
- When a person eats in excess of energy needs, the body stores a small amount of glycogen and much larger quantities of fat.
FASTING
- The body draws on its glycogen and fat stores for energy
- When glycogen is depleated then the body breaks down protein to aa to synthesize glucose for the brain. The liver also converts fats to ketone bodies.
KETOSIS
- breaks down fatty acids to ketones
- problematic because too many ketones increase plasma acidity and can be dangerous
PROBLEMS FROM FASTING
- suppresion of appetite
- Slows down the body's metabolism because the body is trying to conserve the body's tissue and your body needs to consume at least 1200 calories a day.
SYMPTOMS OF STARVATION
- appetite is suppressed
- no energy
- wasting of body
- decreased body temperature
- decreased immunity
DIRECT CALORIMETRY
- measures the amount of heat released from food
- 3500 calories in excess equals 1 pound
INDIRECT CALORIMETRY
- measures the amount of oxygen consumed
PHYSIOLOGICAL FUEL VALUE
- The number of kilocalories that the body derives from a food, as contrasted with the number of kilocalories determined by calorimentry.
- The number will be less than the total calories available in the food source.
HUNGER
- the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
APPETITE
- the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that initiates or delays eating.
SATIATION
- the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating
- determines how much food is consumed during a meal.
SATIETY
- the feeling of satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal.
- determines how much time passes between meals.
STRESS EATING
- eating in response to any type of arousal
- overrides hunger and satiety
SATIATING
- having the power to suppress hunger and inhibit eating.
- protein is more satiating than complex carbs or fat. Fat does play a role in satiety but not in satiation.
- In order to sustain satiation and satiety lower fat foods can be eaten in larger portions for the same number of kilocalories
BASAL METABOLISM
- the energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)
- the rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions
- after a 12 hour fast and resrful sleep without any physical activity or emotional excitement
- comfortable setting
- expressed by kcalories per kilogram body weight per hour.
- Factors decreasing BMR
- female
- increase in age
- shorter height and smaller body size
- decrease lean body mass
- decrease stress
- people who aren't growing
RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR)
- similar to the BMR, a measure of the energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting
- less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity
- Consequently the RMR is slightly higher than the BMR
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
- most variable component of energy expenditure
THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD (TEF)
- an estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested nutrients)
BODY COMPOSITION
- the proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person's total body weight.

Body Weight (includes water) = fat + lean tissue
CRITERION FOR HEALTH
- not appearance
- good health and longevity
- a person should have enough fat to meet basic needs but not so much as to incur health risks.
BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)
BMI = weight (kg) / height (m^2)

- Underweight = BMI <18.5
- Healthy Weight = 18.5- 24.9
- Overweight = 25- 29.9
- Obesity = 30-39.9
- Extreme obesity = BMI >40
NECESSARY BODY FAT
- some people need less body fat and some people need more body fat.
- Normal men need 13-20% and Normal women need 23-31%
- Athletic men need 5-10% and athletic women need 15-20%
FAT DISTRIBUTION
- Intra-abdominal fat- associated with the storage in the internal organs as opposed to fat stored under the skin
- Central obesity- increases chronic disease. The excess fat is located in the trunk of the body
WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE
- assess abdominal fat
- indicator of fat distribution
METHODS USED TO ASSESS BODY FAT
- Fatfold measures
- Hydrodensitometry- measures body density by weighing the person first on land and then submerged in water.
- Bioelectrical impedance- measures body fat using a low intensity electrical current
- Air Displacement Plethysmography- amount of air displaced by a person's body
- DEXA- 2 low dose x-rays that differentiate between lean body mass, fat, and bone.
HEALTH RISK OF UNDERWEIGHT
- osteoporosis
- risk increase as BMI declines
HEALTH RISK OF OVERWEIGHT
- osteoarthritis
- gall bladder disease
- increase risk of pregnancy problems.
- risk increases as BMI rises
HEALTH RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
- central obesity may raise the risk of heart attack and stroke
- weight gain increase risk
- high LDL cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking increase risk
HEALTH RISK OF DIABETES
- high blood pressure
- high blood glucose
- high blood triglycerides
- low HDL cholesterol
- high waist circumference
HEALTH RISK OF CANCER
- obese people have elevated levels of hormones that could influence cancer development
FIT AND FAT VERSUS SEDENTARY AND SLIM
- cardiorespiratory fitness plays a major role in health and longevity independently of BMI
- Overweight but fit people have lower risks than normal weigh and unfit ones
- healthy body weight is good but may not be good enough
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
- focus on healthy eating and activity habits, not on weight losses or gains
- Adopt reasonable expectations about health and fitness goals and about how long it will take to achieve them.
- Make nutritional adequacy a high priority
- Learn, practice, and follow a healthful eating plan for the rest of your life.
- Participate in some form of physical activity regualrly.
- Adopt permanent lifestyle changes to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
FAT CELL DEVELOPMENT
- During growth the fat cells increase in number.
- When energy intake exceeds expenditure than the fat cells grow in size
- When the fat cells have enlarged to maximum and energy intake still exceeds expenditure then the fat cells increase in number again.
- When a person tries to lose weight they only shrink the fat cells they do not lose the amount of fat cells.
LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE
- enzyme that promotes fat storage in both adipose and muscle cells.
- regulated by gender specific hormones
SET-POINT THEORY
- the point at which controls are set.
- The body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls.
HYPERPLASTIC OBESITY
- due to an increase in the number of fat cells
HYPERTROPHIC OBESITY
- due to an increase in the size of the cells
LEPTIN
- a protein produced by fat cells under direction of the ob gene that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure
- If a person lacks leptin they will gain more weight
GHRELIN
- a protein produced by the stomach cells that enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
UNCOUPLING PROTEINS
- energy is released as heat
- these proteins may influence the storing or expending of energy with different efficiencies or in different types of fat.
WHITE BODY FAT
- stores fat for other cells to use for energy
BROWN BODY FAT
- masses of specialized fat cells packed with pigmented mitochondria that produce heat instead of ATP.
GENE POOL
- all of the genetic information of a population at a given time.
CAUSES OF OBESITY FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
- Gene pool
- overeating
- physical inactivity
HEALTH RISKS
- overweight in good health
- obese or overweight with risk factors
- sometimes healthier not trying to lose the weight
- obese or overweight with life threatening condition
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WEIGHT CYCLING
- I am fat and unhappy
- I want to be happy
- If I lose weight, I will be happy
- I try too hard to reach an unrealistic goal
- I lose a little weight, but then regain it (and sometimes more)
- I am fat and unhappy
FAD DIETS
- popular eating plans that promise wuick weight loss
- most fad diets severely limit certain foods or overemphasize others
OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS
- Benzocaine- anesthetizes the tongue to reduce taste sensations
- Phenylpropanolamine- suppresses the appetite
- These medicines have many side effects and the FDA recommends that they not be sold over the counter
HERBAL PRODUCTS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
- few have proved to be effective
- St. John's wort- contain substances that inhibit the uptake of serotonin and thus suppres appetite- potential risk for heart attack and seizures
CLINICALLY SEVERE OBESITY
- a BMI of 40 or greater or a BMI of 35 or greater with additional risk factors
- Morbid obesity
DRUGS FOR CLINICALLY SEVERE OBESITY
- aggressive treatments
- have serious side effects and a patient should be monitored
- Siburamine
- orilistat
VERTICAL BANDED GASTROPLASY
- the surgeon constructs a small stomach pouch and restricts the outlet form the stomach to the intestine.
- smaller stomach
GASTRIC BYPASS
- the surgeon constructs a small stomach pouch and creates an outlet directly to the jejunum
EATING PLANS IN WEIGHT LOSS STRATEGIES
- be realistic about energy intake
- emphasize nutritional adequacy
- eat small portions
- lower energy density- choose grapes instead of raisings
- remember water
- focus on complex carbs
- choose fats sensibly
- watch for empty kcalories
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN WEIGHT LOSS STRATEGIES
- activity and energy expenditure- the number of kcalories spent in an activity depends on body weight, intensity, and duration
- activity and metabolism- speeds up metabolism
- activity and body composition- people have less body fat
- activity and appetite control- after an intense workout most people don't feel like eating
- activity and psychological benefits- reduces stress and a person gains self esteem
- choose activities that you will enjoy and do regularly
- spot reducing- no exercise can reduce fat from one particular area
BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE IN WEIGHT LOSS STRATEGIES
- Behavior modification does not hold a key position any more in weight loss programs. Only change small behaviors
- Become aware of behaviors causing the problems
- Change behaviors by leaning about desired eating and exercise behaviors
- Personal attitude- stay away from smoking and drinking alcohol
- Support groups- helpful when making changes
SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT LOSS MAINTENANCE
- acheiving a weight loss of at least 10 percent of initial body weight and maintaing the weight loss for at least one year.
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR UNDERWEIGHT
- energy in should exceed energy out by at least 500kcalories/day
- gain 1 pound per month
- emphasize energy dense foods
- eat at least 3 meals a day
- eat large portions of foods and expect to feel full
- eat snacks between meals
- drink plenty of juice and milk
THE FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD
- Eating Disorder- disturbance in eating behavior that disturbs a persons psycological or physiologoical health- restrictive dieting- overexercising- weight loss- lack of body fat
- Osteoporosis- loss of calcium from bones
- Amenorrhea- diminished hormones
MUSCLE DYSMORPHIA
- sees a very small person even though they are big
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
- refusal to maintain body weight or above a minimal normal weight for age and height
- intense fear of gaining weight even though underweight
- body weight and shape effects self-evaluation
- amenorrhea
- 2 types: restricting and binge eating
BULIMIA NERVOSA
- recurrent episodes of binge eating
- inappropriate behavior to prevent weight gain like throwing up or misuse of laxatives
- self evaluation is influenced by body shape and weight
- Two types are purging and nonpurging
- Cycle:
- Negative self perceptions
- restrictive dieting
- binge eating
- purging
EATING DISORDERS IN SOCIETY
- only known in developed nations
- may be genetic component to eating disorders
MICRONUTRIENTS
- needed in small quantities
- not an energy source
- assists enzymes that release the energy from macronutrients
VITAMINS
- all are essential and organic
- bioavailability- rate and extent the nutrient is absorbed
- precursors
- solubility which affects trasport and storage
- toxicity
VITAMINS WITHOUT TOLERABLE LIMITS
- The more vitamins you take in than th greater the effect until it plateaus off. There is a point where more vitamins don't do anything
VITAMINS WITH TOLERABLE LIMITS
- The more vitamins taken in the greater the effect until it hits a point where the increase in vitamins will reduce the effect and be harmful.
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
- B and C
- absorbed directly into the blood
- travel freely
- are not stored because they circulate freely in water filled parts of the body
- kidneys detect and remove excess in urine
- possible toxic levels when consumed from supplements
- Needed in frequent doses every 1 to 3 days
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
- Absorbed in the lymph first and then into the blood
- many protein carriers are required for transport
- Stored in cells associated with fat
- Not readily excreted because they remain in fat storage sites
- Likely to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements
- Needed in periodic doses ( weekly or monthly)
THIAMIN
- water soluble
- part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism
- easily destroyed by heat
- Causes Beriberi- interrupts absorption of thiamin and the excretion of it. It is most common amongs alcoholics
RIBOFLAVIN
- water soluble
- part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism
- easily destroyed by uv light and irradiation
NIACIN
- water soluble
- Precursor is dietary triptophan which the body uses to make its own niacin
- part of coenzymes used in energy metabolism
BIOTIN
- water soluble
- part of a coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis
PANTOTHENIC ACID
- water soluble
- part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism
- easily destroyed by food processing
VITAMIN B6
- water soluble
- part of coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism
- helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin
- helps to make red blood cells
FOLATE
- water soluble
- absorbed better in supplement form than from food
- activated by vitamin B12
- reduces neural tube defects
- breaks down homocysteine and reduces heart disease and cancer
- part of coenzyme used in DNA synthesis and therefore important in new cell formation
- masks B12 deficiency
VITAMIN B12
- water soluble
- activated by folate
- HCL and pepsin release vitamin B12
- Binds to an intrinsic factor (made in the stomach) in the small intestine. Without the intrinsic factor B12 can't be absorbed.
- part of coenzymes used in new cell synthesis
- helps to maintain nerve cells
- reforms folate coenzyme
- helps to break down some fatty acids and amino acids
- easily destroyed by microwave cooking
B VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES
- Glossitis- tongue becomes very smooth and swollen
- Cheilosis- reddened lips with cracks and corners
B VITAMIN TOXICITIES
- from high levels of supplements
B VITAMIN FOOD SOURCES
- all food groups
VITAMIN C
- water soluble
- collagen synthesis- strengthens blood vessel walls, form scar tissue, provides matrix bone growth
- Antioxidant
- Thyroxin synthesis
- amino acid metabolism
- strengthens resistance to infection
- helps in absorption of iron
- easily destroyed by heat an oxygen
- deficiency causes scurvy
VITAMIN A AND BETA CAROTENE
- fat soluble
- Retinyl esters (animal foods) goes to the retinol (supports reproduction)
- Beta carotene (plant foods) goes to the retinal (participates in vision)
- Both retinol and retinal activate retinoic acid which regulates growth
- 12 times more of beta carotene is needed to activate vitamin A rather than retinol
- Functions:
- vision
- maintenance of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin
- bone and tooth growth
- reproduction
- immunity
VITAMIN D
- fat soluble
- mineralization of bones (withdraws calcium in bones and stimulates retention in kidneys)
- deficiency diseases are rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
RICKETS
- in children
- inadequate calcification, resulting in misshapen bones (bowing of legs)
- enlargement of ends of long ones (knees, wrists)
- deformities of ribs (bowed, with beads or knobs)
- delayed closing of fontanel resulting in rapid enlargement of head
- lax muscles resulting in protrusion of abdomen
- muscle spasms
OSTEOMALACIA
- loss of calcium
- results in soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed bones
- progressive weakness
- pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs
VITAMIN E
- fat soluble
- antioxidant- stabilizes cell membranes, regulates oxidative reactions, protects polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin A
- easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
VITAMIN K
- fat soluble
- synthesis of blood clotting proteins and bone proteins that regulate blood calcium
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS INTERACTIONS
- Vitamin D protects vitamin A from oxidation
- Vitamin D affects calcium balance