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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the six classes of nutrients?
• carbohydrates
• fats (lipids)
• proteins
• vitamins
• minerals
• water
Which nutrients provide energy?
• carbohydrates
• fat
• protein
What is the role of vitamins and minerals, in regards to energy?
• Vitamins do not provide energy but faciliate the release of energy
• Minerals yield no energy but regulate the release of energy
Energy metabolisms centers on what four basic units?
• Glucose (from carbohydrates)
• Glycerol (from lipids)
• Fatty acids (from lipids)
• Amino Acids (from protein)
How many calories do a normal adult need?
• ~25 cal of fuel/kg of body weight
• average 70 kg person needs 2100 cal/day
What is the recommended daily allowance of carbs, fats, & protein?
• CHO = 55%
• Lipids = 30%
• Protein = 15%
What is gluconeogenesis?
the production of glucose from protein & glycerol of lipids when glucose in insufficient
How much energy does fat supply?
• 9 kcal/gm for fat
• glucose & protein supply 4 kcal/gm
What happens to proteins & fats during starvation?
proteins & fats are metabolized, overloading the kreb cycle, causing acidosis & ketones
What are the 9 essential amino acids?
• Histidine
• Isoleucine
• Leucine
• Lysine
• Methionine
• Phenylalanine
• Threonine
• Tryptophan
• Valine
Describe the starvation process
• glycogen is burned; lactate is produced (process ends in 1 day)
• gluconeogenesis forms amino acids (used up in 1 week)
• free fatty acids become main source of energy (produced ketone bodies which are metabolized in the liver)
• protein is used from organs and tissue (causing organ dysfunction & death)
What are the functions of the fat-soluble vitamins?
• Vit A: healthy skin & mucous membrane; vision in dim light
• Vit D: absorption of calcium & phosphorus; mineralization of bone
• Vit E: protection of cells
• Vit K: blood clotting
Which vitamins are water soluble?
vitamin C and the B-complex
List the B complex vitamins
• Thiamine (Vit B1)
• Riboflavin (Vit B2)
• Niacin (Vit B3)
• Pantothenic Acid (Vit B5)
• Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
• Biotin (Vit B7)
• Folate (Vit B9)
• Cobalmin (Vit B12)
What are early symptoms of vitamin toxicity?
• cracked lips, dry rough skin
• complex tingling
• urinary calculi
What percentage of dehydration will a person start to feel thirsty?
2% dehydrated
What are some functions of minerals?
• bone formation
• cellular function (ex. cardiac cells)
• insulin production
• nerve/muscle function
• regulatory function
• tooth formation
What is Scurvy?
• vitaminc C deficiency
• causes hemorrhages
What is Beriberi?
• thiamin deficiency
• either wet (cardiovascular effects) or dry (neuro effects like wenicke-korsakoff)
What is Pellagra?
• niacin deficiency
• triad: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
What can vitamin D deficiency cause?
• Rickets (in kids)
• Osteomyalgia (in adults)
What can vitamin A deficiency cause?
• may cause blindness (especially night blindness)
• early symptom may be Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
What is Kwashiokor?
• protein deficiency
• presents w/ swollen abdomen, reddish discoloration of the hair, depigmented skin, & miserable appearnace w/ "bull-dog" face
What is marasmus?
• lacking all nutrients
• presents w/ dry skin, loose skin folds hanging over the glutei & axillae
What nutrients are lacking in osteomalacia?
• calcium
• vitamin D
• phosphorus
• magnesium
• fluoride
What nutrients are lacking in osteoporosis?
calcium and vitamin D
Patient presents with pallor & blue half circles beneath the eyes. What are possible defiencies?
• iron
• copper
• zinc
• B12
• B6
• Biotin
A patient with bumpy "gooseflesh" can be cause by what vitamin deficiency?
vitamin A
Glossitis can be caused by what vitamin deficiency?
folic acid
A patient with many "black & blue" spots and tiny, red "pin prick" hemorrhages under the skin can have what vitamin deficiency?
vitamin C
Poorly shaped bones/teeth OR delayed appearance of teeth in children can be caused by what vitamin deficiency?
vitamin C
a) Describe a Chvostek and Trousseau sign.
b) What deficiency causes a Chvostek or Trousseau sign?
• Chvostek sign: taping of the face causes spasm
• Trousseau sign: inflated B/P cuff after 3 minutes causes spasm of the hand
• caused by calcium deficiency
What deficiency causes tetany?
calcium, potassium, sodium
What is steatorrhea?
• fat in stool greater than normal amount
• normal person excretes 5 gms/24 hrs on 80 gm fat diet
What is pancreatic insufficiency?
• the end result of chronic inflammation of the pancreas
• lack of production of pancreatic enzymes which help digest CHO (amylase), fat (lipase), & protein (trypsin)
What is Celiac Sprue?
• malabsortion of Gluten (found in wheat, rye, oats, & barley)
• affects the proximal portion of the small bowel
• symptoms usually appear in infancy, disappear in childhood, & reappear in 30-60 y/o
What are characteristics of Tropical Sprue?
• malabsorption of nutrients (especially vit B12 and folic acid) because of flattened villi
• found in tropical regions
• an overgrowth of coliform bacteria within the jejunum has been demonstrated
• TX: broad spectrum antibiotics (tetracycline) & folic acid daily
What is Whipple's Disease?
• a rare infectious disease
• 1st symptoms are malabsorption syndrome w/ small intestine involvement, but also affects joints, CNS, and cardiovascular system
• caused by Tropheryma whippelii
• TX: PCN, tetracycline