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18 Cards in this Set

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Definition: Nutrition
The science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein, their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the [human] organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, and excretes food substances. - Council on Food & Nutrition of the AMA
Definition: Nutrients
Chemical substances, many essential to diet, which nourish by providing energy (calories), materials necessary for growth & factors to regulate chemical processes in the body. The body is capable of synthesizing some nutrients by itself, i.e., Vitamin D.
Definition: Essential Nutrients (Three Characteristics)
1. Omission of nutrient must lead to decline in biological function.
2. Restoration must cause repair of biological function.
3. The specific biological function(s) of the nutrient must be identified.
Six Classes of Nutrients
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen Compound.
Source of energy - 4 kcal per gram.
Simple sugars, complex carbs and fiber.
Mainly carbon/hydrogen (less oxygen)
9 kcal per gram
Dissolve in solvents ether and benzene, not water.
Basic structure of lipid and key calorie source from (fatty acids).
Major form of fat in foods.
Main form of energy storage in body.
Lipids that are solid at room temperature. Absence of carbon-carbon double bonds.
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature. Presence of carbon-carbon double bonds. Kinks from bonds do not allow molecules to pack tightly together.
Saturated Fats
Rich in saturated fatty acids and do not contain carbon-carbon double bonds.
Unsaturated Fats
Rich in unsaturated fatty acids and contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Trans Fatty Acids
Form of unsaturated fatty acid (usually monounsaturated)in which hydrogens on both carbons lie on opposite sides of the bond rather than the same side.
Amino acids bonded.
C, O, H, N.
Main structural material in the body.
Constitute major part of bone and muscle.
Important components in blood, body cells, enzyme and immune factors.
Provide calories for body - 4 kcal per gram.
A compound that speeds up a chemical process but is not altered by the process. Almost all enzymes are proteins.
Amino Acid
Building block for proteins.
Contains central carbon atom with nitrogen and other atoms.
Enable many chemical reactions to occur in the body.
Do not contain usable cals.
13 divided into two groups.
4 fat soluble (A, D, E & K) which are more likely to accumulate in excess - toxicity possible.
9 water soluble (C & B's) which are excreted more readily, less likely to accumulate.
Chemical Reaction
Interaction between two chemicals which alters both in the process.
Any substance that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure.