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70 Cards in this Set

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Water
Thirst is protective mechanism.
Reguirement:
1.5 ml/kcal energy expenditure.
Pregnacy & lactation Increase demands
Illness can create increased need or decreased need
Most abundent in the body
Adult is 60-70% and infant 77%
Sourses of Water
Beverage
Foods-fruit and veggie
Oxidation of Food
Food has 85 -95 H20
Fuction of Water
Solvent for essential nutrients so body can use them.
Trasport nutrients O2 from lood to cells
Maintain body's physical performance
Gives shape and form cells
Lubricates joints
Cushions organs
Vitamins
Micronutrients
2 classes: fat and water soluble
To much can cause toxicity
The Fat Brothers & Witnesses
Destroyed by processing, storage, and peraration
Vitamin A
Epithelial tissue proliferation
Retinal pigmented
Boost immune system
Antioxidant
Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic acid
Where does V A Hides
Whole Milk & milkk products
Green leafy & yellow veggies
Fish
Liver
Oils
Fruits
Sweet potatoes
No meat Except fish and liver
Without V A
Poor Vission
Incraesed susceptibility to infection
Dry/defeated mucus membrane
Dull, fry hair
Because of retinol
Retarded growth in children
Vitamin B1 Thiamine
Metabolized CHO &some A Acids
Prod. of Hydrochloric acid
Enhance circulation/protect heart tissue
Stimilate brain activity
Improves peristals/prevent constipation
Miss Stimulato
Do has Pork
No Meat
Where VB1 hides
whole grain
wheat, brown rice, oats
Fish, Eggs, Poultrr
Beans
No meat
WIthout VB1
Degeneration of mylin sheath
Weeks of cardiac muscle
Anorexia
Hair Loss, new hair slow to grow
Beriberi-all system involved
Poor appetite due to constipation
Hypertrophy
VB2 Riboflavin
Oxidation & reduces of CHO, fats, & protein
RBC Formation
Antibody production
Aids digestion
Prevent constipation
Promotes good hair, skin, nails
Strengthens mucus lining of mouth, lips, tougue
Miss Pretty
essential for normal growth & tissue maintenance
Preserves feeling and appearance of youth
Where VB2 hides
Milk & cheese
Whole grain
Green veggies
Liver
Legumes,almonds,walnuts
it doeas have Fish, meat, poultry

Nuts
Without VB2
Burning or blood shot eyes
Inflammation of mouth
Dry, craked tongue
Headachs
Mental depression
Digestive problem
Skin lesions
Forgetfullness
VB3 Niacin
Coenzyme in energy met.
Aids in circulation
Helps with digestion, nervous system, maintain health skin
Helps maintain emotional well-being & mental health
Miss Helper
Pertner with B2 to convert glucose & protiens
Where VB3 hides
Meat
Fish, tuna
Whole grain, cereals, sunflower seeds
Broccoli, carrots, cheese
Without VB3
Mus. weakness, CNS lesions
Cracked skin, mouth lesions, tongue sores
Irritation & inflammation of mucous membraines of GI tract
leading to hemorrhage
Dementia
Pellagra
Irritability
VB5 Pantothenic Acid
Met of CHO & Fats
Pre. permature aging
Speeds recovery from illnes
Incre. vitality
Wards off infection
Miss Calm
Anti-stress factor
Where VB5 hides
Meat
Whole grains cereals
Eggs
Legumes
especially liver
Without VB5
Inc. tendency toward infection
Depression
Chronic fatigue
Dizziness
Irritability
VB6 Pyridocine
Coen. to prtein & amino acid met
absortion of fats & proti
involved in prod of antib
Essential for normal reproduction and healthy pregnancies
Protect against cholestero, tooth decay, heart dieses, diabetes
Miss Verstility
Works together with B5
Neurotransmitter
where VB6 hides
Whole grain, soy beans
Green bean, lima beans, lentl
Potatoes
Eggs
liver, fish, poultry
Beans
Without VB6
Anemia
Convulsions
Nausea & vomiting
Edema
Dermatitis
Halitosis & tooth decay
VB8 Biotin
Synthsis of fatty acid
Prote met
Promote healthy immune system
prevent graying of hair
maint skin & nrevous sys
controls proper distribition of color pigment
Miss Strength
Utilized glocose for energy
where VB6 hides
liver, kidney
Brewer's yeast
Egg yolk
whole grain
Peanut butter
Dark green vaggies
Without VB6
Hai loss, dandruff
Cradle cap in infants
weakness
Eczema
Pins and needles
VB9 Folic acid
maturation of RBCs
syn of purines & thymine-DNA
Aids in proti met & promo growth
Help build antibodies
Miss Maturity
Essential in pregnacy to prevent neural tube defects
Where VB9 hides
liver
Meat, fish, poultry
Whole grain, barley, bran, brewer yeast
Green leafy veggies
Without VB9
Anemia
Sore red tongue
Skin disorders
Poor circulation
Retarded growth
Dementia
VB12 cyanocobalamin
met fx as coen wit folate
Replication of genes & hydrogen receptor
Production & regeneration of RBCs
Proper CNS function, improve memory,
Relieves irritability
Miss Growth
balance & coordination
Where B12 hides
milk cheese
Meats, fish, poultry
Eggs
Vegetarians need supplement
Without VB12
Loss of perioheral sensation & paralyss
Poor appetite & retarded growth in children
Demyelination of large spinal cord nerves
Difficulty concentrating
Meneral
Inorganic elements found in all body tissues and fluid
Some fx to provide structure in body
Help regulate body process
Severs as catalysist in biochem process
Classified according to requirement
Macro- 100 mg or greater
Micro- less then 100 mg
Macrominerals
calcium
phosphrous
magnesium
potassium
sodium
chloride
The studs
Calcium
Est. strengh & thickness of cell memb
Prmo transmission of nerve impluses
Promo abso. & util of B12
Aids in clotting process
Stud Stron
Provides healthy bones & teeth
99% stored in bones & teeth
GI tract 20-40%
Required for proper fetal growth
Sources
sardines
whole grain
Green leafy veggies
Beast sourse if milk and milk products
Deficiencies of Calcium
Pale, tired, muscle cramps
bone change
Irritability
Insomnia
Phosphorus
Imp for Ca+ and other minera
Ass. wit heart fx & kidney fx
Ass. wit energy transfer of CHO & fats
Nec. for formation of some phospholioids
Help regulate acid balance
Stud Assist
2/3 found with Ca+
Source of Phosphorus
fish
Milk
found in whole grain cereals
Deficit of Phosphorous
Retarded growth
demineralixation of bone
gene. weakness, weigh loss
Very Rare
Magnesium
Bones keep a reserve in case of shortage
Helps keep nerves relaxed
Hepls maintian healthy cardiovascular system
Stud on the side
1/5 total amt is in soft tissue inside cell bound to protein
Necessary for all muscula activity
Sources of Magnesium
Stud on the side
whole grain cereals
veggie, nuts, soy beans
figs, apples
wiely distributed in foods
Deficit of Mag
b/c of choronic diarrhea
muscul cramps
irritability
kidney damage
impaired protein metabolism
Due to lack of intake rare
Potassium
Mainti F & E balance
Essential for mucs contraction-maint healthy normal heartbeat
Helps kidney detocify blood
Stud Essential
Essential for life of every cell
Source of Potass
Bananas
Orange juice
cabbage, tomatos
green leafy veggies
Widely distributed in food
Deficits of Potass
vomiting/diarrhea, steroid therapy
Tiredness, palpitaion, cludy mind, sensitity to cold
Can occur with GI disturbances
diuretics
Sodium
Main water balance
Incr cell membrane permeability for transport of other nt across cell memb
Stimulate nerce impulse conduction
Stud Overload
Deficit of Sudium
Nausea, weaknes, cramps
excessive sweating
vomiting
caused by diarrhea
Usually get too much! Edema, High B/P
Source of Sudium
NaCL
veggies, fruit, fish, meat
Foods provide more then body need
Cholride
Essential for maint of osmotic pressure in tissue
wit K+ to - produce HCL for proper protein digestion
Stud dependent
component of salt wth Na+
Source of Cholride
barley, melon, pineapple
wheat, grains
Deficiency of cholride
but can occur as Na+ is restricted or taken in
Toxicity
Rare
Microminerals
Iron
The Studettes
Iron
Along with protein, helps form hemoglobin to transport oxygen
Next largest stored in liver, spleen, bone marrow (30-35%)
Studette Freaky
60-70% found in hemoglobin
Sources Iron
• Wholegrain cereals, legumes
• Fish, liver, meat
• Egg yolk
• Raisins
liver
Raisins
Deficiencies Iron
can be caused by severe blood loss, malnutrition, infections
Only iron-deficiency anemia responds to supplemental iron intake
Fatigue, weakness, pale, shortness of breath
Too much can be harmful
Iron-deficiency anemia
Zinc
• Almost all enzymes need this for proper functioning
• Needed to transport Vitamin A to retina
• Assists with insulin formation
• Maintains normal blood concentrations of Vit. E
• Healthy hair & skin
• Proper wound healing
• Successful pregnancies
• Male virility
• Guards against disease & infection
Studette Assist
• Assists with insulin formation
Sources Zinc
• Cereals, nuts, oilseeds
Deficiencie Zinc
 Can play part in anemia
 Growth retardation
 Delayed genital maturation
 White spots on nails mean zinc is not being absorbed
White spots on nails mean zinc is not being absorbed
Iodine
• Prevents & cures simple goiter
• Basic component of thyroid hormone – thyroxine
• Controls metabolism & oxygen consumption of tissues
Studette Safe
• Prevents & cures simple goiter
Sources Iodine
Best source is iodized salt, sea foods, spinach
Best source is iodized salt
Deficiencie Iodine
 In children – cretinism – dwarfed child, mentally retarded, clumsy gait, defective speech, enlarged thyroid
 In adults – myxedema – affect adequate production of thyroid hormone, loss of hair, slow metabolism, thick skin, general sluggishness
 Other – anemia, fatigue, lethargy, loss of sex drive, slow pulse, decreased B/P, tendency toward obesity
In children – cretinism – dwarfed child,
In adults – myxedema – affect adequate production of thyroid
Fluoride
 Needed for teeth formation & prevention of dental caries
 Too much can cause brittle bones – increase fracture tendency
Studette Smile
Needed for teeth formation & prevention of dental caries
Sources: Fluoride
Drinking water, seafood, toothpaste
Drinking water tap water
Deficiencies Fluoride
• Rotten teeth!
• Weak bones
Rotten teeth!
Calories
o Metabolic rate: rate of heat liberation during chemical reactions, expressed in calories
o Calorie: Quantity of heat required to raise temperature of 1 G H20 1 C
o Large quantity of energy released during metabolism – expressed in kilocalories (kcal) each of which is equivalent to 1000 calories
o Basal metabolic rate: energy needed to maintain essential physiological functions at rest
o Too many = BAD, too few = BAD
Carbohydrates
 Provide energy & support normal cell function
 Synthesis of fatty acids & amino acids
 Classified by number of sugars:
 Spare protein metabolism when ingested appropriately
 RDA minimum 50-100 G/day – Should make up 50-60% total calories
 Complex: usually starches
 Simple: usually sugars (lactose, sucrose)
 Cells cannot store large amounts – converted by liver into glucose & excess stored as glycogen
 When metabolized 1 G glucose = 4 kcal
(1000 mg) glucose = 4000 cals
Without them: Carbohydrates
 Impaired brain functions
 Increased ketones
 Poor wound healing
 Tiredness
Fiber – An important note
 Form of CHO that cannot be digested by body
 Polysaccharide
 Helps with feelings of fullness/ satiety
 Provides roughage/bulk to help maintain intestinal motility
 Linked to prevention of some cancers
 Linked to prevention of some cancers
Proteins
 Essential for almost every bodily function
 Growth & replacement
 Clotting factor production
 Collagen synthesis
 Immunity & WBC production & migration
 Fluid balance
 Energy source
 End product of protein digestion is amino acids
 Should ingest minimum of 20-30 G/day to prevent net loss from body, RDA 45-60 G/day
 Essential aminos – must be ingested

 Non-essential aminos – can be synthesized in cells

• When metabolized, 1 G protein = 4 kcal
1000mg protein = 4000 cals
Fats (Lipids)
 Basic structural unit is fatty acid
 Contains carbon chains & hydrogen that form esters (fats)
 Saturated – carbon atoms joined by single bonds (saturated with hydrogen)
 Insoluble in water
 Source of energy & essential fatty acids
 Helps maintain cell membrane integrity
 Promotes absorption of The Fat Bros.
 Helps maintain body temperature
• Should be limited to no more than 30% total caloric intake
 Monounsaturated – One double or triple bond
 Polyunsaturated – Many carbons not bonded with hydrogen
 When metabolized, 1 G fat = 9 kcal
1000 mg fat = 9000 calories