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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is nutrition?
It is the study of the relationship between diet and states of health and disease.
What are calories?
In nutrition, it is used to quantify the energy of food and the defining quantity of water is a unit of thermal energy,
What substances make up nutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water
What are nutrients?
Is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organism's metabolism, growth, or other functioning. Some of them are essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained from a food source. There are six groups.
What are carbohydrates?
compounds made up of sugars used or stored as energy
are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. Relatively complex carbohydrates are known as polysaccharides. Carbohydrates are naturally produced by plants and animals. Sugars and starches are carbohydrates
What are fats?
including fatty acids (a fat consists of an assemblage of three fatty acids linked to a central glycerine molecule). The body does not manufacture certain fatty acids (termed essential fatty acids):
Some fats are fat-soluble meaning they can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats. Fats are sources of essential fatty acids, an important dietary requirement.
They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats: saturated and unsaturated. Fats are broken down in the body to release glycerol and free fatty acids. The glycerol can be converted to glucose by the liver and thus used as a source of energy. The fatty acids are a good source of energy for many tissues, especially heart and skeletal muscle.
What are proteins?
nitrogenous organic compounds, including amino acids, that provide the building blocks (amino acids) for enzymes and other proteins within the body. The body does not manufacture certain amino acids (termed essential amino acids): the diet must supply these
is a complex, high-molecular-weight organic compound that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Proteins are essential to the structure and function of all living cells and viruses. Many proteins are enzymes or subunits of enzymes. Other proteins play structural or mechanical roles, such as those that form the struts and joints of the cytoskeleton, serving as biological scaffolds for the mechanical integrity and tissue signaling functions.
What are minerals?
generally trace elements, salts, or ions such as copper and iron; essential to normal metabolism
are chemical elements required by living organisms. They can be either bulk minerals (required in relatively large amounts) or trace minerals (required only in very small amounts).
What are vitamins?
organic compounds essential to the body's functioning, usually acting as coenzymes
is an organic molecule required by a living organism in minute amounts for normal health.
What is water?
absolute requirement for normal growth and metabolism directly involved in all the chemical reactions of life — sometimes referred to as the forgotten nutrient.
absolute requirement for normal growth and metabolism directly involved in all the chemical reactions of life
— sometimes referred to as the forgotten nutrient
What is cholesterol?
A primary form of fat found in the blood.
What is satiety value?
A food’s ability to cause a feeling of fullness.
What are saturated fats?
is a type of fat or fatty acid that can be stored in the body or found in food, and tend to be solid at room temperature. Saturated fats that are found in food are generally from butter, ghee, suet, tallow, lard, coconut oil, cottonseed oil and palm oil, dairy products (especially cream and cheese) and in meat as well as some prepared foods. Dehydrogenation converts saturated fats to unsaturated fats, while hydrogenation accomplishes the reverse
What is fiber?
are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract.
There are two principal types of dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber is simply bulk that changes little as it passes through the body. Soluble fiber, on the other hand, forms a soft gel in solution with water.
What are amino acids?
The chief components of protein; can be manufactured by the body or obtained from dietary sources.