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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
produced by mother 2-3 after birth. Contains lots of antibodies and white
blood cells
how long to breastfeed?
Exclusive breastfeeding for first 6
• Breastfeeding with complementary
foods for at least 12 months
benefits of breastfeeding
stimulates development, mantains healthy digestive tract, protects against cardiovascular disease, digested easily, high in fats, sterile
infant formula
Contains more vitamin D and iron than
breast milk
infant formula problems
lacks mother's hormones, immune contributions, contaiminated with lead, bacteria, viruses, tooth damage from bottle
introducing foods to infants
controversial: 4-6 months.
no cow's milk first year (causes intestinal bleeding, possible link to diabetes 1, high vit c and iron inhibit iron absorption, high protein causes kidney stress)
Food too early could cause allergic reactions to those foods
introducing foods to infants
introduce veggies first, (decreases preference for sweets), provide variety, foods high in vit c and iron, don't restrict fat, limit fruit juice (not energy or nutrient dense)
breastfeeding until when
age two
appetite does what in children
decreases with slowing of growth
6 year olds need how many calories
Iron deficiency in kids
is the most prevalent
deficiency in children
fat intake and kids
energy uses more fat in kids than adults
iron in kids
vital for proper brain growth
calcium/ vit a in adolescents
peak requirement in adolescents because bones are rapidly developing
vit d, iron, floride
recommended as supplements during infancy and childhood
what percent of children have inadequate diets
81% 2-9 year olds
diet-related health problems can start early
hypertension, high LDL levels, building of plaque on artery walls can start at 15
critical periods
finite periods during
development in which certain events
occur that will have irreversible
effects on later developmental stages
First Trimester
0-13 weeks, fetus very suceptible to teratogens
compounds that cause birth defects
Second Trimester
14-27 weeks of gestation Baby can hear, react to light, open
and close eyes, suck thumb
Third Trimester
28-40 weeks of gestationFetus doubles in length
• Fetus quadruples in weight
• Maturation of fetal lungs and brain
Full-term Baby
38-40 wks. healthy weight: 5.5-9 lbs
low-birth weight
preterm, increased risk of infection, learning disabilities, impaired physical development, death in first year
poor maternal nutrition
alters blood pressure, glucose, immune function
maternal weight
underweight: preterm baby, 1st year death,
overweight: large baby trauma to mother and child, heart defects
Obese: Increased risk of hypertension, gestational
diabetes, postpartum infections, heart and
neural tube defects and other abnormalities
weight gain during pregnancy
more if u are underweight to start out with. 15 lb minimum for obese. 3-5 lbs first tri, 1 lb afterwards
weight gain components
breast, increase in fluid vol, placenta,Increase in blood supply
to the placenta,Amniotic fluid, Infant at birth
Increase in size of uterus
and supporting muscles, Mother’s fat stores
calorie needs in pregnant women
2-3 tris: 400 more calories
nutrient needs in pregnant women
130g crabs (prevents ketosis), 25g protein, no change in fat
fluid intake
10 cups of fluids a day because amniotic fluid
– increased blood volume
– metabolic reactions
– maintaining body temperature etc.
due to hormonal fluctuations,
craving for non-food items
avoid while pregnant
containminated items such as unwashed fruits veggies, taking medications supplements without advice of doctor, infection with listeriosis (unpasteurized cheeses, uncooked or
rare meats) mercury contaiminated fish
fetal alcohol sydrome
greater than 3-4 drinks/day Emotional, behavioral, social, learning,
development problems throughout life
complications during pregnancy
heartburn (relaxed sphincters and stomach, enlarged uterus) constipation (hormones causes smooth muscles to relax) Gestational Diabetes: during pregnancy, mother temporarily doesn't produce insulin, can usually be controlled with diet , excerise or medication, increased risk of type 2 diabetes for mother and child, Preeclampsia: due to low vit e, vit c, magnesium, HBP, swelling, wt. gain, protein in urine, cure is birth of child
exercise while pregnant
tremendous benefit to mother: keeps BP down, good mood, easier to loose wt after birth
worldwide breatfeeding percentage
USA percentages of breastfeeding women
70% in hospital
33% 6 months
10% 6 months exclussive
breastfeeding benefits for mother
contracts uterus, conserves iron stores, may protect against breat/overian cancer, mother-infant bonding
breastfeeding produces
25 oz milk, costs 700-800 cals/day (some from food some from internal stores), need 500 extra cals/day
wt. loss after pregnancy
1-4 lbs./month quantity/quality not affected by wt. loss
macronutrients and lactating women
protein: same
Fat: same
carbs: higher end of range
fefiences affect quantity not quality, declines w/ prolonged inadequate intake of most vits, intake should be highered for vits, smae for mins
well-balanced diets for lactating women
provide all they need (cept iron)
Chronological age:
A person’s age in
years from his or her date of birth
Physiological age
A person’s age as
estimated from his or her body’s
health and probable life expectancy
how to slow aging
well-balanced meals, physical activity, maintaining healthy body wt., no smoking, lil or no alcohol, sleeping reg. and adaquately
muscle loss: declines with age, regualr physical activity slows muslce loss
GI tract problems in elderly
motility is sloiwed due to change in GI hormones and decrease in elasticity of GI tract
difficulty swallowing leads to wt loss malnutrition dehydration
atrophic gastritis
symptoms: inflamed stomach , increased, bacterial growth , reduced stomach acid.
Consequences: impaired digestion, absorption of ntrs, 1/3 people affected over 60

lowers absoprtion of B12 because of low acid stomach
dehydration in elderly
causes – urinary tract infections
– pneumonia
– pressure ulcers
– confusion
– disorientation
calories and elderly
need less: physical activity decreases,Basal metabolic rate decreases
– Due to decrease in lean body mass
protein in elderly
high quality protein needed because of lowered calorie intake impt. for immune, and muscle wasting