Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Difficulty swallowing; often results from a problem affecting the tongue or the swallowing reflex (Stroke or ALS); causes aspiration
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Dysphagia?
Avoid liquids initially
Start with globby foods
Cardiac or lower esophogeal sphincter does not close lightly (hiatal hernia, pregnancy)
GERD (Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease)
What are/is the treatment(s) for GERD?
Treatment is aimed at decreasng gastric acidity and lesson the irritation to esophogus. Short term - use of antacids.
What are the dietary modifications that accompany GERD?
Limit intake of coffee, tea, alcohol, cola, and chocolate.
Watch weight to decrease abdominal presure.
Liquids in between meals
Elevate head after eating - KEY! Pregnancy will increase.
An erosion of the top layer of cells from the GI tract lining which exposes other layers to GI acidity (gastric juices).
Peptic Ulcer Disease
What are the said causes of ulcers?
Bacteria (H. Pylori)
What is a possible treatment for Peptic Ulcer Disease?
NSAIDS (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
Use NSAIDS, like aspirin, for treatment.
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Peptic Ulcer Disease?
Avoid foods that increase gastric acid secretions, such as coffee, ETOH, spicy/greasy/pepper foods. Stick with bland diet (Diet as Tolerated)
What are the characteristics of Dumping Syndrome?
-Can result from gastric bypass surgery.
-Sudden shifting of food as it passes through GI tract.
-Often occurs with hypoglycemia.
-Nausea, exhaustion, diarrhea
What are the 4 common ailments that affect the Upper GI tract?
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Dumping Syndrome
Causes by invasion of it's own juices.
Pancreatitis (secretes enzymes for all nutrients)
What causes pancreatitis?
Invasion of its own juices caused by gallstones or alcohol
What are the symptoms of pancreatitis?
Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, steatorrhea (fat in stool)
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Pancreatitis?
Acute Phase:TPN very important
Progress oral diet from clear liquids, low fat, Medical Nutrition Therapy
What is the difference between a clear liquid and a full liquid diet?
Clear: water, broth, Jello, popsicles, etc. 72 hours max. NO protein!
Full: milk introduced, cream cereals, smooth cereals - transitional diet!
A hereditary disorder characterized by the production of a thick, sticky mucous by the glands.
Cystic Fibrosis
What are the characteristics of Cystic Fibrosis?
Mucous stagnates in bronchial tubes and bacteria multiply.
Interferes with secretion of digestive enzymes - leads to malabsorption, malnutrition
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Cystic Fibrosis?
Increase kcalories - due to infections; Enzyme replacements - vitamin & mineral supplementation.
Characterized by intolerance to dluten and related barley and rye. Causes damage to intestinal mucosa.
Ciliac Disease
What are the dietary modifications for Ciliac Disease?
Avoidance of whear, barley, and rye.
Inflammation and ulceration along GI tract, usually in the small intestine.
Crohn's Disease
What are the causes and treatment of Crohn's Disease?
Genetic or encironments, and disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Steroids can be used to lower inflammation; scarred tissue generally needs to be removed.
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Crohn's Disease?
Low fiber, especially with intestinal obstructions; after condition resolves, fiber can slowly be reintroduced (condition may improve); MNT, depending on symptoms; as with any bowel problems, TPN.
Inflammation and ulceration of the colon and rectum.
Ulcerative Colititis
What are the symptoms of Ulcerative Colititis
Sever diarrhea, rectal bleeding (leads to anemia), cramping, weight loss.
What is the treatment for Ulcerative Colitis?
Surgery - unlike Crohn's, this will not reoccur once the damaged portion is removed (colectomy).
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Ulcerative Colititis?
Low residue diet (undigested, unabsorbed in colon), TPN often used, vitamin/mineral supplementation, especially iron.
What is true about intestinal resections (large bowel vs. small intestine)?
Not as likely to have nutrient deficiencies result from large bowel resection as compared to resections in the small intestine.
What dietary modification usually accompanies most chronic or sever bowel problems?
TPN - Total Perenteral Nutrition. Feeding a person intravenously, circumventing the gut. When a person's digestive system cannot absorb nutrients due to chronic disease, or, alternatively, if a person's nutrient requirement cannot be met by enteral feeding (tube feeding) and supplementation.
Removal of entire colon and rectum
A surgically formed opening which a portion of intestine is brought through abdominal wall (ostomy)
Results in watery stool because colon is removed
What are the concerns with a stoma?
Odor, gas-producing and stringy foods.
Healthcare profesional who deals in stoma care
Enterostomal Therapist
Removal of rectum and anus; part of colon remains, so stools are less watery.
With this procedure, there are less concerns with nutritional deficiency than with its alternative.
Inflammation of the gallbladder
What are the dietary modications that accompany Cholecystitis?
Low fat diet
Pouches of intestinal wall bulge out
What are the dietary modifications that accompany diverticulosis?
High fiber, no seeds.
Wxtensive tissue scarring; tissue death. Results from fatty liver into fibrosis.
What are the most likely causes of cirrhosis?
26% - Hepatitis C
Alcoholic Cirrhosis occurs in up to 20% of chronic alcoholics
What are the consequences of Cirrhosis
PEM - Protein Energy Malnutrtion; Ascites - accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavities.
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Cirrhosis?
Individualized for each patient. Typically, restric sodium (fluid) to control steatorrhea and maintain nitrogen balance.
Abnormally low blodd sugar (<60 mg/dl)
Generally a result of poor management of diabetes - a condition rather than a disease.
What are the causes of Hypoglycemia?
Poor management of diabetes; delayed or skipped meals; consumption of ETOH without food
What are the symptoms of Hypoglycemia?
Hunger, sweatiness, shakiness, heart palpatations, slurred speech, confusion, dizziness, headache, irritability.
A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.
Diabetes Mellitis
Explain the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitis.
Key and loc theroy - insulin acts as a key that unlocks cell doors to let sugar in.
What are some of the causes of Diabetes Mellitis?
Something damages cells in pancreas, and sugar gets built up in blood (lock and key theory). Overweight, cells can seal shut.
How does your urine change if you have Diabetes Mellitis?
After sugar gets built up in blood, it builds up in urine. Dibetes Mellitis means "sweet urine"
Which type of diabetes has a stronger gentic link?
Type 2 Diabetes
What are the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (called beta cells).

Normally, the body's immune system fights off foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. But for unknown reasons, in people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks various cells in the body. This results in a complete deficiency of the insulin hormone.
Type 2 diabetes, often called non-insulin dependant diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 90% - 95% of the 18.2 million people with diabetes.

Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes produce insulin; however, the insulin their pancreas secretes is either not enough or the body is unable to recognize the insulin and use it properly.
Breakdown of fats, causing acid in the blood.
What are the symptoms of Ketoacidosis.
Polydipsia (frequent thirst), Polyuria, glycosuria (sugar in urine), Ketosis (breakdown of body fat because of starvation), frequent infections, drowsiness, tiredness
What conditions create risks for Diabetes?
Gentic, overweight, stress, history during pregnancy, chronic illness, age (greater than 40), ethnic background (higher with blacks, hispanics, Native Americans.
What are the recommended normal blood sugar ranges?
80 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL before meals and 100 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL at bedtime when using a blood sample drawn from a vein (a whole-blood sample).
90 mg/dL to 130 mg/dL before meals
110 mg/dL to 150 mg/dL at bedtime
Less than 180 mg/dL one to two hours after meals.
What are the ranges for "Prediabetes"?
100-125 mg/dl or 140-200 mg/dl 2 hours after a 75g glucose load (GTT)
Diabetes glucose levels
Fasting = >126 mg/dl
Random, or after 75g glucose load = >200 mg/dl
What is the treatment for diabetes?
Main goal is to maintain blood glucose levels; medications, exercise (its a vascular disease); meal planning (MNT); see dietary mods.
What are the dietary modifications for Diabetes?
MNT; CHO counting instead of exchanges; monitor simple sugar intake; 3 R's - right kinds, right amounts, and right times for food (4.5-5 hours)
What are the chronic complications of Diabetes?
Coronary artery disease - thicker blood, stress on heart; higher BP, retinopathy; nephropathy, neuropathy, gangrene, impotence
The growth of malignant tissue
A cancer initiating substance; an inherited vulnerability.
A risk factor for a number of cancers, including colon and postmenopausal breast cancer
These antioxidants kill free radicals
Vitamins A, C, and E
This Antioxidant helps eliminate caracts
Vitamin A
This antioxidant helps eliminate cancer
Vitamin C (in US, mostly potatoes and tomatoes)
This antioxidant helps eliminate heart disease
Vitamin E
Contain phytochemicals and antioxidants
Fruit and veggies
What are three main treatments for Cancer?
Sugery, Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy
What are the side effects with Chemo and Radioation?
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste changes.
What are the dietary modifications with Cancer?
Increase kcalories, increase protein (1.5-2.0g/kg likely). EEnterol products, like Ensure, may be necessary. Tube feeding if refuse to eat.
Develops suddenly to a condition that causes kidney damage, such as heart attack, blood loss, or infection. Often reversible.
Acute Renal Failure
Gradual and irreversible deteroration of the kidneys.
Chronic Renal Failure
What are the most common causes of Chronic Renal Failure
43% - diabetes; 26% - hypertension
What are the consequences of Chronic Renal Failure?
Blood chemistry changes (primarily electrolytes); N2 waste accumulates (BUN) -Blood Uria Nitrogen; PEM - Protein Energy Malnurtrition.
What are the treatments for Chronic Renal Failure?
A combination of medications, MNT diet, and dialysis (main on is hemodialysis).
What are the side effects of Chronic Renal Failure?
Increase in Potasium causes heart to enlarge and beat rapidly (Calcium/Phosphorus balance).
What are the dietary modifications that accompany Chronic Renal Failure?
Balance the protein, sodium restriction, potassium restriction, phosphorus restriction (Three Ps). Once dialysis is started, protein is less restricted.
What is true with a patient who has Chronic Renal Failure and is comorbid?
The Renal diet takes priority over any other diet.