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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Zinc is a coenzyme for _______production.
Part of the enzyme sys. ____________
hemoglobin

superoxide dismustase
Copper is a coenzye for _____________ production.
Collagen.
Anemia is-
condition w/ low hemoglobin levels
Iron-deficient anemia results in
small RBC's that do not carry enough hemoglobin (microcytic anemia)
Macrocytic anemia- caused by ________deficiency. Large BC, not enough hemoglobin.
folate( needed to create hemo globin)
Pernicious Anemia- due to loss of
gastric production of intrinsic factor - protein required for b12 absorption. In people who consume little b12
Sources of Vit D
fortified foods- milk
Too much Vit D results in
hypercalcemia
Phylloquinone
plant form of Vit. K
Menaquinone
Animal form of Vit. K
Phosphorous is the primary _________ ___________charged electrolyte
intracellular negatively
Functions of phosphorous
critical to bone mineral comp.
component of ATP, DNA, RNA, cell membranes
Too much Phosphorous
hyperphosphetemia- muscle spasms, convulsions
Function of Mg
helps make up bone structure
cofactor for more than 300 enzymes
used to treat alcoholism, alzheimer's
function and sources of fluoride
development and maintenance of bones and teeth, forms flurohydroxyapatite (with calcium and phosphorous)
-dental products, tap water
too much fluroide
too little Fl
fluorosis
cavities
osteoporosis os characterized by (5)
low bone mass
deterioration of bone tissue
fragile bone, bone fractures
compaction of bone, low height
shortening + hunching of spine
risk factors osteoporosis
age( bone mass decreases w/ age, age hormones influence bone density)
gender(80% women, estrogen loss)
genetics
nutrition
phys. activity ( bone stress can increase bone D)
When evaluating body weight, besides actual weight, also consider:
BMI
body comp.
pattern of fat distribution
eq. for BMI
kg/m squared
Body comp can be measured by (6)
Underwater weighing
skinfold measurements
bioelectric impedance analysis
near infrared reactance
Bod Pod and Pea Pod
DXA- the standard one
gaining/losing weight depends on
energy balance
genetic factos
childhood factos
behavorial factors
social factors
energy balance occurs when
E intake=E expenditure
Basal Metabolic RAte
________ increases it
__________ decreases it
E for resting functions
lean tissue
age
thermic effect of food is
the energy required to process food
Genetic factors account for __% of a person's body fat
25
Thrifty Gene Theory
gene/s cause people to be energetically thrifty- expend lesss energy- gain weight
Set Point Theory
The body has a set weight and adjusts for changes in E balance to maintain that weight
Leptin Theory
Leptin is
a hormone causing reduced food intake, reduced body weight, decreased body fat- controlled by ob gene. When ob gene is mutated, food intake goes up, e goes down, weight is gained
appetite
hunger
satiety
psychological drive to eat
Physiological drive to eat
lack of hunger
social factors influencing our diet
holidays
family/cultural traditions
easy access to high fat foods
less phy. active lifestyles
perfect body image
effective weight loss includes
portion control
exercise
limit of high fat/ energy foods
effective weight gain
resistance training
avoidance of tobacco
balanced diet
freq.; eating
underwight BMI
18.5 or lower
overweight BMI
25- 29.9
obesity BMi
30-39.9
morbidly obese BMI
>40
low carb diet
limited friuts and vegs- micronutrients
limited fiber
high in sat. and total fat
higher satiation
-ketosis
-constipation
-high renal workload
low fat
rich in fruits and vegs
high in fiber
high satiation
______of body fluid is intracelluar
2/3
extracellular fluids include:
tissue fluid-
plasma-
fluid btw cells in tissues and organs
fluid portion of bl.
+ electrolytes
-electrolytes
Na, K (xcellular
Cl,P(intracellular)
Blood volume is
the amount of fluid in the blood
2 ways fluids help maintain body temp.
heat capacity of water keeps it stable
through sweating
fluids protect and help lubricates body tissues
brain and spinal cord
fetus
joints
cerebrospinal
amniotic
synovial
too much fluroide
too little Fl
fluorosis
cavities
osteoporosis os characterized by (5)
low bone mass
deterioration of bone tissue
fragile bone, bone fractures
compaction of bone, low height
shortening + hunching of spine
risk factors osteoporosis
age( bone mass decreases w/ age, age hormones influence bone density)
gender(80% women, estrogen loss)
genetics
nutrition
phys. activity ( bone stress can increase bone D)
When evaluating body weight, besides actual weight, also consider:
BMI
body comp.
pattern of fat distribution
eq. for BMI
kg/m squared
Body comp can be measured by (6)
Underwater weighing
skinfold measurements
bioelectric impedance analysis
near infrared reactance
Bod Pod and Pea Pod
DXA- the standard one
gaining/losing weight depends on
energy balance
genetic factos
childhood factos
behavorial factors
social factors
energy balance occurs when
E intake=E expenditure
Basal Metabolic RAte
________ increases it
__________ decreases it
E for resting functions
lean tissue
age
thermic effect of food is
the energy required to process food
Genetic factors account for __% of a person's body fat
25
Thrifty Gene Theory
gene/s cause people to be energetically thrifty- expend lesss energy- gain weight
Set Point Theory
The body has a set weight and adjusts for changes in E balance to maintain that weight
Leptin Theory
Leptin is
a hormone causing reduced food intake, reduced body weight, decreased body fat- controlled by ob gene. When ob gene is mutated, food intake goes up, e goes down, weight is gained
appetite
hunger
satiety
psychological drive to eat
Physiological drive to eat
lack of hunger
Zinc is a coenzyme for _______production.
Part of the enzyme sys. ____________
hemoglobin

superoxide dismustase
Copper is a coenzye for _____________ production.
Collagen.
Anemia is-
condition w/ low hemoglobin levels
Iron-deficient anemia results in
small RBC's that do not carry enough hemoglobin (microcytic anemia)
Macrocytic anemia- caused by ________deficiency. Large BC, not enough hemoglobin.
folate( needed to create hemo globin)
Pernicious Anemia- due to loss of
gastric production of intrinsic factor - protein required for b12 absorption. In people who consume little b12
Sources of Vit D
fortified foods- milk
Too much Vit D results in
hypercalcemia
Phylloquinone
plant form of Vit. K
Menaquinone
Animal form of Vit. K
Phosphorous is the primary _________ ___________charged electrolyte
intracellular negatively
Functions of phosphorous
critical to bone mineral comp.
component of ATP, DNA, RNA, cell membranes
Too much Phosphorous
hyperphosphetemia- muscle spasms, convulsions
Function of Mg
helps make up bone structure
cofactor for more than 300 enzymes
used to treat alcoholism, alzheimer's
function and sources of fluoride
development and maintenance of bones and teeth, forms flurohydroxyapatite (with calcium and phosphorous)
-dental products, tap water