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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
9 essential amino acids
Threonine
Valine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Phenylalanine
Methionine
Histidine
What makes each amino acid different from others?
side groups
Each amino acid contains...(chemistry)
amino group, acid group, hydrogen atom, and side group, all attached to a central carbon atom
Protein digestion in the stomach
partial breakdown (hydrolysis) of proteins
Protein digestion in the small intestine
hydrolyzed into short peptide chains
How many different kinds of proteins are there?
30,000
Protein synthesis depends on a diet that provides what two things?
adequate protein and essential amino acids
Two major steps to transform the info in DNA into the appropriate sequence of amino acids needed to make a specific protein....
Transcription and translation
What determines the shape of each protein?
the sequence of amino acids
Roles of proteins
Form building blocks of muscles, blood, and skin
Replace dead or damaged cells
Act as enzymes
Hormone-some hormones are proteins
Regulate fluid balance,
Regulate balance between acids and bases,
Transporters,
Antibodies,
Source of Energy and Glucose,
Blood Clotting,
Vision
What 2 factors influence protein quality?
Protein's digestability and amino acid composition
2 forms of PEM:
Marasmus and kwashiorkor
PEM =
Protein-energy malnutrition
Marasmus
chronic PEM; inadequate energy and protein intake
Kwashiorkor
Acute PEM; protein deficiency or brought on by measles or other infection; swollen abdomen...
Health Effects of high-protein diets
heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, obesity, and kidney stones
RDA for protein
0.8 grams per kilogram of weight, per day
What are the 3 branched-chain amino acids?
leucine, isoleucine, and valine
In the stomach, hydrochloric acid:
Denatures proteins and activates pepsin
Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions are:
enzymes
Protein turnover describes the amount of protein:
synthesized and degraded