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136 Cards in this Set

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A family of organic compounds including triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.
lipids
The chief form of fat in foods and in the human body.
triglycerides
What is made up of 3 units of fatty acids and 1 unit of glycerol?
triglycerides
What are present in all cell membranes?
phospholipids
What has a structure similar to that of cholesterol?
sterol
What is waxy, present in food and part of hormone production?
sterol
What can be moved in or out of a cell?
phospholipids
What is the cause of high cholesterol?
saturated fat
Fatty acids that the body needs but cannot make in amounts it needs?
essential fatty acids
What is the functions of fat?
1.chief storage form for energy
2.provides energy
3.surrounds vital organs
4.insulation
5.absorption of phytochemicals
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,D,E, and K
What is rich in monounsaturates?
vegetable oils, olive oil, and canola oil
What is the most saturated fat?
lard and animal fat
What are some hidden fats?
biscuts, cake, ice cream
What are the 3 major lipoproteins?
1.very-low-density
2.low-density
3.high-density
What carries tyiglycerides and other lipids made in the liver to the body cells for their use?
very-low-density
What transports cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues?
low-density
What are critical in the process of carrying cholesterol away from the body cells to the liver for disposal?
high-density
What lipoprotein is larger, lighter, and richer in cholesterol?
low-density
What lipoprotein is smaller, denser, and packaged with more protein?
high-density
If elevated, what lipoprotein concentrates in the blood and is a sign of high risk of heart attack?
low-density
What triggers a rise in LDL cholesterol in the blood?
saturated and trans fat
Most people are wise to choose a diet that provides?
20-35% of its calories from fat
What is the best diet for heart health?
fruits, veg, nuts, and whole grains
What foods provide Omega 3?
grains, seeds, nuts, leafy veg, oils, and fish
What food can be eaten 2 or 3 times a week?
fish
What are the 2 polyunsaturated fatty acids?
omega 3 and omega 6
What process of fats make food stay fresher longer and change their physical properties?
hydrogenation
Vegetable oils becomes more saturated when they are?
hydrogenated
A vitamin that serves as an anitoxidant is?
vitamin E
Good sources of vitamin C include?
strawberries, cirtrus fruits, and broccoli
A vitamin that can be synthesized from intestinal bacteria is?
Vitamin K
Water-soluble vitamins have the following characteristics except that?
they are stored in fatty tissues of body
Beta-carotene is a precursor for what vitamin?
Vitamin A
An individual with a problem with excessive alcohol ingestion may develop a deficienct of?
thiamin
To prevent birth defects of the neural tubes, a woman should consume sufficient amounts of?
folate
Pellagra is the deficiency disease of?
niacin
Vitamins that act as part of coenzymes include?
B vitamins
Rickets is the deficiency disease in children who lack what vitamin?
Vitamin D
What functions with vitamin E as an antioxidant?
selenium
Water makes up what percent of the body's weight?
60
What is a way to absorb more dietary iron?
consume a source of vitamin C at the same meal
A zinc deficiency in children reduces the body's ability to?
taste foods and grow
What maintains the volume of fluid outside of cells?
sodium
What works with insulin to control blood glucose levels?
chromium
The most abundant mineral in the body is?
calcium
Sources of iodine include the following except?
sea salt
The principle positively charged ion inside cells is?
potassium
Most of the magnesium of the body is fount in the?
bones
What is the most essential nutrient the body needs?
water
How much water is needed a day?
6-8 cups
Loss of water
dehydration
What is the first sign of dehydration?
thirst
What is a symptom of dehydration?
fatigue
Water with high calcium and magnesium concentrations.
hard water
Major minerals form what that dissolve in the body fluids?
salt
What mineral is stored in the bones and teeth?
calcium
What are the 2 important roles calcium plays?
1.it is an integral part of bone structure
2.serves as a bank that can release calcium to the body fluids if even the slightest drop in blood calcium concentration occurs
What 2 minerals are essential to bone formation?
calcium and phosphorus
What is the second most abundant mineral?
phosphorus
What mineral helps maintain normal blood pressure?
calcium
A person whose calcium savings account is not sufficient is more likely to develop fragile bones which is called?
osteoporosis
What is the recommended intake of calcium in adults?
1,000mg a day
What mineral is part of the DNA and RNA of every cell and is essential for growth and renewal of tissues?
phosphorus
What is the recommended intake of phosphorus in adults?
700mg/daily
What is the recommended intake of sodium in adults?
1500mg/daily
What mineral plays major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and cell integrity, and is critical to maintaining the heartbeat?
potassium
Dehydration leads to a loss of what mineral from inside cells?
potassium
What is the recommended intake of potassium in adults?
4700mg / daily
What are sone food rich with potassium?
whole foods, orange juice, bananas, lima beans, avocado
What are trace minerals?
1. Iodine
2. Iron
3. Zinc
4. fluoride
What are the major minerals?
1. calcium
2. phosphorus
3. sodium
4. potassium
What trace mineral is part of the hormone thyroxine, which influences energy metabolism?
iodine
What trace mineral in the body is contained in hemoglobin and myaglobin or occurs as part of enzymes in the energy-yeiding pathways?
iron
What trace mineral is required for cellular energy metabolism?
irom
What is the best source of food that is rich in iron?
red meat
What mineral helps to regulate gene expression in protein synthesis?
zinc
What mineral assists in immune functions, wound healing, sperm production, taste perception, fetal development, and growth and development in children?
zinc
What mineral assists enzymes in all cells?
zinc
What are some food sources of zinc?
meat, shellfish, poultry, milk, milk products
What mineral stabilizes bones and makes teeth resistant to decay?
fluoride
A deficiency of what mineral is a leading cause of mental retardation worldwide?
iodine
What factors hinder iron absorption?
tea, coffee, caffinated beverages
What is a symptom of a person lacking iron?
unable to concentrate
How is calcium intake determined?
by person's age and vitamin D status
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,D,E, and K
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
C and B
What is the functions of vitamin A?
gene expression, vision, maintenance of body linings and skin, immune defenses. growth of bones and normal develp of cells
What vitamin is rich in beta carotine?
vitamin A
What are some food sources of vitamin A?
liver, fish oil, milk, milk products
What is a deficiency in adults who lack vitamin D?
osteoprosis
Which vitamin is known as the toxic vitamin?
vitamin D
What vitamin is an antioxidant and serves as one of the body's main defenders against oxidative damage?
vitaminE
What is the main function of vitamin K?
help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood
What are some food sources rich in vitamin K?
cauliflower, canola oil, spinach
What is the function of vitamin C?
antioxidant, restores vitamin E to active form, supports immune system, boosts iron absorption
What are the food sources of vitamin C?
orange juice, broccoli, strawberries, sweet potatoes, grapefruit, brussels sprouts
People who lack alot of fruits and veg have a greater chance of suffering what?
muscular distrophy and blindness
What vitamin acts as part of coenzymes?
vitamins B
What vitamin helps the body metabolize carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids?
vitamin B
What vitamin B is only found in animal source?
B12
Describe fat-soluble vitamins?
they are stored extensively in tissues
What is the best food source of folate?
spinach
Why does minerals act as a laxicitve?
to rid of all fat-soluble vitamins
When eating at a fast food resteraunt, what would be the best food item to order that is rich in beta-carotene?
salad with carrots
What governs water intake?
by thirst and satiety
What regulates water excretion?
brain and kidneys
What is the function of water?
carries nutrients throught the body, cleanses tissues and blood waste, participates in chemical reactions, lubricant for joints, maintains body temp
What is the purpose of water in the body?
to keep cells alive
What synthesizes protein?
carbohydrates and fats
Do people need adequate protein in their diets?
yes
Do people need amino supplements?
no
What happens when you get to much protein?
may pose health risks for the heart, weakened kidneys, and bones. but otherwise offers no benefits
Over emphasized protein rich foods
loose out folate
loose out vitamin C
loose out vitamin B
A person who is a vegetarian and eats a soy diet will develop what?
iron deficiency
A soy protein diet is low in?
iron
Protein digestion begins in the?
stomach
DRI recommends protein intake for healthy adults?
0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight
An athlete should consume an excess of what?
protein
What coating of what secreted by the stomach wall protects its proteins from attack by either acid or enzymes?
mucus
What is the functions of protein?
1.growth and repair
2.enzymes and hormones
3.antibotics
4.fluid/electrolte
5.energy
What are some food sources of vitamin A?
liver, fish oil, milk, milk products
What is a deficiency in adults who lack vitamin D?
osteoprosis
Which vitamin is known as the toxic vitamin?
vitamin D
What vitamin is an antioxidant and serves as one of the body's main defenders against oxidative damage?
vitaminE
What is the main function of vitamin K?
help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood
What are some food sources rich in vitamin K?
cauliflower, canola oil, spinach
What is the function of vitamin C?
antioxidant, restores vitamin E to active form, supports immune system, boosts iron absorption
What are the food sources of vitamin C?
orange juice, broccoli, strawberries, sweet potatoes, grapefruit, brussels sprouts
People who lack alot of fruits and veg have a greater chance of suffering what?
muscular distrophy and blindness
What vitamin acts as part of coenzymes?
vitamins B
What vitamin helps the body metabolize carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids?
vitamin B
What vitamin B is only found in animal source?
B12
Describe fat-soluble vitamins?
they are stored extensively in tissues
What is the best food source of folate?
spinach
Why does minerals act as a laxicitve?
to rid of all fat-soluble vitamins