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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the science of food and how the body utilizes it.
What are the "top 3" diseases that are related too nutrition?
1. Heart Disease
2. Cancer
3. Stroke
What are "chronic diseases" that are affected by nutrition?
1. Heart Disease/Hypertension
2. Cancers
3. Diabetes Mellitus
4. Strokes
What is the definition of "genome"?
It is the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell.
What is the definition of "DNA"?
It is the material that encodes genetic information in its structure.
What would the completion of the human genome allow for?
It would allow for greater control over health and disease. Also, allows for an increased understanding of the interactions between a persons genetic make up and the nutrients in the body.
What two things can cause disease?
Hereditary and Nutrition.
Also, it can be a combination of both.
What is overnutrition?
Overnutrition is:
1. An excess of kilocalories
2. An excess of total fat and saturated fat
3. An excess of sugar
4. An excess of sodium
5. An excess of alcohol
What is undernutrition?
Undernutrition is a lack of:
1. Iron
2. Fiber
3. "Healthy fats"
4. Vitamin A, C, E and D
5. Zinc
6. Phosphorous
Name 5 factors which affect diet.
Hunger, Availability, Time, Preference and Money all affect diet.
What are the catagories of nutrients?
The catagories of nutrients are: Water, Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins and Minerals.
What are calories?
Calories are units of energy. Their actual term is "kcalorie" or "kilocalorie". They are used to measure energy in food.
What are the five "ABC" principles to a nutritious diet?
The five "ABC" principles are: Variety, Moderation, Calorie Control, Balance and Adequacy.
What are "nutrient dense" foods?
Nutrient dense foods have high levels of essential nutrients with relatively low levels of kilocalories.
What are "empty calorie" foods?
Empty calorie foods have low levels of essential nutrients with high levels of kilocalories.
What are the sub-catagories of vegatables?
The sub-catagories of vegatables are: deep green; orange; legumes; starch; vitamin A, C, Folate and Potassium; Vitamin A; Folate, Potassium, Iron and Protein; Carbohydrate; Vitamin C; Folate and Potassium.
What do the "good" fruits contain?
The "good" fruits contain: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Potassium and Fiber.
What do the "good" vegatables contain?
The "good" vegatables contain: Folate, Vitamin A, Vitamin C. Magnesium, Potassium and Fiber.
What do "good" grains contain?
"Good" grains contain: Folate, Riacin, Riboflavin, Thiamin, Iron, Magnesium and Fiber.
What does "good" meat/poultry contain?
"Good" meat/poultry contains: Protein, Niacin, Thiamin, Vitamin B, Iron, Magnesium and Zinc.
What does "good" milk/yogurt contain?
"Good" milk/yogurt contains: Protein, Riboflavin, Vitamin B, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium.
What do "good" oils contain?
"Good" oils contain: Vitamin E, needed fatty acids and a lot of calories.
What are the serving sizes for the grain group?
1. 1 slice of bread
2. 1/2 bagel or bun
3. 3/4 cup cold cereal
4. 1/2 cup hot cereal/pasta
What are the serving sizes in the fruit group?
1. 1 medium piece of fruit
2. 1/2 cup REAL fruit juice
3. 1/2 cup canned fruit
4. 1/4 cup dried fruit
What are the serving sizes in the vegatable group?
1. 1 cup raw leafy vegatables
2. 1/2 cup cook or raw vegatables
3. 1/2 cup vegatable juice
4. 1/2 cup cooked legumes
What are the serving sizes in the milk group?
1. 1 cup milk or yogurt
2. 2 oz processed cheese
3. 1.5 oz natural cheese
4. 1 1/2 cup ice-cream
What are the serving sizes in the meat/fish/poultry group?
1. 2-3 oz meat/fish/poultry
2. 1/2-3/4 cup legumes
3. 2-3 eggs
4. 2-3 Tablespoons PB
What are the equivilants to 1 Ounce of meat?
1. 1 oz nuts/seeds
2. 1/4 cup legumes
3. 1 egg
4. 1 Tablespoon PB
What are the underlying concepts of the Dietary Guideline?
1. AIM for fitness
2. BUILD a healthy base
3. CHOOSE sensibly
What is nutritional genomics?
It is the intergration of nutrition, genomic science, and molecular biology.
What are energy yielding nutrients?
Energy yielding nutrients contain energy that the body can use. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are energy yielding nutrients.
What are essential nutrients?
Without essential nutrients, your body can develop deficiencies.
What are dietary supplments?
Dietary supplements are "pills, liquids, or powders that contain purified nutrients or other ingredients."
What are phytochemicals?
They are "nonnurtient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body."
What are functional foods?
Functional foods are "foods known to possess nutrients or nonnutrients that might lend protection against diseases."
What are staple foods?
Staple foods are "used frequently or daily."
What are nutraceutical foods?
"This sometimes refers to foods that have medicinal effects."
What is discretionary calorie allowance?
It helps people to control calories and prevent unhealthy weight gain.