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43 Cards in this Set

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Catabolism
Breaks food moecules down, releasing their stored endery; oxygen used in catabolism
Anabolism
builds food molecules into complex substances
Glycolysis (cycle one)
Changes glucose to pyruvic acid
Anaerobic (uses no oxygen)
Yields small amount of engery inot ATP)
Citric acid (KREBS) cycle (cylcle two)
Changes pyruvic acid to CO2, aerobic, yields lg. amount of engery, mosstly as high energy electrons. Occurs in the mitochondria
Electron Transfer System (cycle three)
transfers energyy from high energy electrons (from citric ascid cycle) to ATP molecules, located in Mitochondria
Glycogenesis
Glucose anabolism. Carried on chiefly by the liver and muscle cells. Consists of a series of reactions thatt join glucose molecules together to form glycogen
Insulin:
Important hormone, resp. for the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
Makes glucose leave the blood and enter the cells at a more rapid rate. Too little insulin=diabetes mellitues.
Antioxidant:Substance such as vitamin E that can inhibit free radicals (oxidants), which are highly reactive, electron-seeking molecules occuring normally in cells- cont on back
which may damage electron-ense molecules such as DNA or molecules in cell membranes
Scurvy-causes bleeding and ulceration of the skin, gums and other tissues
BC of Avitaminosis C, which impairs the normal maintenance of collage-containing connective tissues,
Avitaminosis
General name for any condition resulting form a vitamin deficiency
Hypervitaminosis
excess of a vitamin, such as hpervitaminosis A, just as serious as a deficiency
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Rate of metabolism when a person is lying down but awake and not digesting food and when the environment is comfortably warm
Metabolic Rate (TMR)
The total amounts of energy, expressed in calories, used by the body per day
Inborn Errors of the Metabolism
genetic conditions involving deficient or abnormal metabolic enyzymes
Major Minerals
Calcium: Dairy products, legumes, and veggies
Functions: helps blood clotting, bone formation, and nerve and muscle function.
Symptoms of Deficiency:
Bone degeneration and nerve\muscle malfunction
MINERAL:
CHLORINE (CI)salty foods
FUNCTIONS:Aids in stomach acid productiona nd acid-base balance
Symptoms of D:Acid-base imbalance
MINERAL:
COBALT (Co)-Meat
FUNCTIONS:Helps vit.B12 n blood cell production
Symptoms of D:Pernacious Anemia
MINERAL:
COPPER (Cu)Seafood, organ meats, and legumes
FUNCTIONS:Involved in extracting energy from the citric acid cycle and in blood production
Symptoms of D:Fatigue adn anemia
MINERAL:
IODINE (I)Seafood, idozied salt
FUNCTIONS:acides in thyroid hormone synthesis
Symptoms of D: Goiter, and decrease of metabolic rate
MINERAL:
IRON (Fe)meats, egss, veggies, legumes
FUNCTIONS:involved in extracting energy from the citric acid cycle and in blood production
Symptoms of D: Nerver disorders, blood vessel dilation, and heart rhythm problems
MINERAL:
CHLORINE (CI)salty foods
FUNCTIONS:Aids in stomach acid productiona nd acid-base balance
Symptoms of D:Acid-base imbalance
MINERAL:
COBALT (Co)-Meat
FUNCTIONS:Helps vit.B12 n blood cell production
Symptoms of D:Pernacious Anemia
MINERAL:
COPPER (Cu)Seafood, organ meats, and legumes
FUNCTIONS:Involved in extracting energy from the citric acid cycle and in blood production
Symptoms of D:Fatigue adn anemia
MINERAL:
IODINE (I)Seafood, idozied salt
FUNCTIONS:acides in thyroid hormone synthesis
Symptoms of D: Goiter, and decrease of metabolic rate
MINERAL:
IRON (Fe)meats, egss, veggies, legumes
FUNCTIONS:involved in extracting energy from the citric acid cycle and in blood production
Symptoms of D:Fatigue and anemia
MINERAL
MAGNESIUM (Mg)veggies and grains
FUNCTIONS:helps many enzymes
Symptoms of D:nerve disorders, blood vessel dilation, and heart rhythm problems
MINERAL
MANGANESE (Mn)
Veggie, legues, and grains
FUNCTIONS:helps many enzymes
Symptoms of D:muscle and nerve disorders
MINERAL
PHOSPHORUS (P)Dairy prodcuts and meat
FUNCTIONS:Aids in bone formation and is used to make APT, DNA, RNA and phospholipids
Symptoms of D: done degeneration and metabolic problems
MINERAL
POTASSIUM (K)Seafood, milk, fruit, and meat
FUNCTIONS: Helps muscle and nerve funtion
Symptoms of D:nuscle weakness, heart problems, and nerve problems
MINERAL
SODIUM (Na)Salty foods
FUNCTIONS:Helps many enzymes
Symptoms of D:metabolic problems
MINERAL
ZINE (Zn) many foods
FUNCTIONS:
helps many enzymes
Symptoms of D: metabolic problems
Anorexia Nervosa
Chronic refusal to eat
Bulimia
invoves an alternating pattern of denial; in bulimarexia, the self-denial triggers self-induced vomitting
Obesity
abnormally high proportion of fat in the body; may be a symptom of an eating disorder
Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM)
Results from a deficiency of calories in general and proteins in particular
MARASMUS-results from starvation look at Pic 18-16 pg 578
type of advanced PCM caused by an overall lasck of calories and protein, tissue wasting and fluid and electrolyte imbalances
KWASHIORKOR (bohemian belly-remember pics of kids in africa)(pg578 look at picture)
type of PCM, lack of protein in the preence of sufficient calories; similar to maramus but distinguished by ascites and flaking dermatitis
Thermoregulation
Maintaining homeostasis of the body temperature, is the function of the hypothalamus (negitive feed back) normal range (36.2 to 37.6 C)
Maligant Hypertermia (MH)
inherited condition that casues increased blody temp. (HYPERthermia) and muscle rigidity when exposed to certain anesthetics
Heat Exhaustion
loss of fluid as the body tries to cool itself; may be accompained by heat cramps
HEATSTROKE (sunstroke)
overheating of body resulting frmo failure of thermoregulatory mechanisms in a warm environment
HYPEthermia
reduced blody temp. resulting from failure of thermoregulatory mech. in a cold environment.
Frostbite:
local tissue damage caused by extreme cold; may result in necrosis or gangrene