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33 Cards in this Set

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Every day, we make food choices. Preventative nutrition is now the main focus.
True
Texas is #10 fattest State, while Mississippi is #1
True
In general, a chronic disease progresses slowly or with little change and lasts a long time.
True
An acute disease develops quickly, produces sharp symptoms, and runs a short course.
True
On average, for humans, for every decade, the average weight gain is 6-10 lbs. per decade.
True
If the number of calories ingested exceeds the number of calories expended, you will gain weight.
True
If the number of calories ingested is less than the number of calories you use, you will lose weight.
True
The science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain; their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion). A broader definition includes the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating.
Nutrition
Foods are products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues.
True
The foods and beverages a person eats and drinks.
Diet
Food choices are made daily based on 10 identifiable reasons.
1. Personal Preference - taste
2. Habit
3. Ethnic Heritage or Tradition
4. Social Interactions
5. Availability, convenience, and economy
6. Positive & Negative Association
7. Emotional Comfort
8. Values (religious beliefs)
9. Body Weight & Image
10. Nutrition and Health Benefits
True
In Chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds. In Agriculture, growing crops and raising livestock according to USDA standards
Organic
Not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
Latin: in = not
Inorganic
Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein because they are required by the body in relatively large amounts (many grams daily)
Macronutrients
Vitamins and Minerals required in small amounts (milligrams or micrograms daily)
Micronutrients
Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs; also called indispensable nutrients. About 40 nutrients are currently know to be essential for human beings.
Essential Nutrients
Carbohydrates, Lipids (fats), Proteins, Vitamins
Organic nutrients
Minerals and Water
Inorganic nutrients
Like other scientists, nutrition scientists use this unit of measure.
Metric
kcal - Kilocalorie
One kcalorie or Kcal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (kg) of water 1 degree.
Calculate the energy available from food.
Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g
Fat = 9 kcal/g
Protein = 4 kcal/g
Alcohol = 7 kcal/g
Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions require energy.
Anabolism
Reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions release energy.
Catabolism
The sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food.
Metabolism
Scientists first understood vitamins in 1912
True
A set of nutrient intake values for healthy peole in the US and Canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets and include:
* Estimated Average Requirements (EAR).
* Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).
* Adequate Intakes (AI).
* Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. (UL).
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
A college-educated food and nutrition specialist who is qualified to evaluate people's nutritional health needs.
Registered Dietitian
A condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
Malnutrition

Latin: mal = bad
A national public health initiative under the jurisdiction of the US Dept of Health and Human Services that identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them.
Healthy People 2010
A condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal. Leading risk factors for chronic diseases include obesity, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
Risk Factor
Leading cause of death in the US
Heart Disease
Leading factor contributing to death in the US
Cigarette Smoking
Similar to the Estimated Average Requirement, (EAR), this represents the average dietary energy intake (kcalories per day) that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity level.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)