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334 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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the
main reason people make food choices and
choices can be influenced by genetics. ex:
habits, ethnic tradition, availabilty
Personal preferences for flavors of food
special events,
customs, and holidays are shared by groups of
people. Food is often involved.
Social interactions
can be the result of changes
in brain chemistry that occur when foods are consumed.
While this may be appropriate at times, it can lead to
overeating.
Eating for emotional comfort
such as religious beliefs, political views, or
environmental concerns may affect food choices.
values
Composition of foods includes the six nutrient classes:
water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
exs of nonnutrients and other compounds:
fibers, phytochemicals, pigments, additives, alcohols
is made of chemicals similar
to food. containing both organic and inorganic compounds
Composition of the human body
those that contain carbon
organic compounds
those that donot contain carbon
inorganic compounds
are those the body cannot make or
cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet needs. These
are also called indispensable nutrients.
essential nutrients
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and
Protein
are macronutrients
because the body needs them in large quantities.
Carbohydrate, fat, and protein
do not provide energy and
are known as micronutrients because the body needs
them in smaller quantities.
Water, vitamins, and minerals
Energy is measured in:
Calories (calories,
kilocalories, kcalories, kcal).
food energy is measured in
joules
the
main reason people make food choices and
choices can be influenced by genetics. ex:
habits, ethnic tradition, availabilty
Personal preferences for flavors of food
special events,
customs, and holidays are shared by groups of
people. Food is often involved.
Social interactions
can be the result of changes
in brain chemistry that occur when foods are consumed.
While this may be appropriate at times, it can lead to
overeating.
Eating for emotional comfort
such as religious beliefs, political views, or
environmental concerns may affect food choices.
values
Composition of foods includes the six nutrient classes:
water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
exs of nonnutrients and other compounds:
fibers, phytochemicals, pigments, additives, alcohols
is made of chemicals similar
to food. containing both organic and inorganic compounds
Composition of the human body
those that contain carbon
organic compounds
those that donot contain carbon
inorganic compounds
are those the body cannot make or
cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet needs. These
are also called indispensable nutrients.
essential nutrients
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and
Protein
are macronutrients
because the body needs them in large quantities.
Carbohydrate, fat, and protein
do not provide energy and
are known as micronutrients because the body needs
them in smaller quantities.
Water, vitamins, and minerals
Energy is measured in:
Calories (calories,
kilocalories, kcalories, kcal).
food energy is measured in
joules
the
main reason people make food choices and
choices can be influenced by genetics. ex:
habits, ethnic tradition, availabilty
Personal preferences for flavors of food
special events,
customs, and holidays are shared by groups of
people. Food is often involved.
Social interactions
can be the result of changes
in brain chemistry that occur when foods are consumed.
While this may be appropriate at times, it can lead to
overeating.
Eating for emotional comfort
such as religious beliefs, political views, or
environmental concerns may affect food choices.
values
Composition of foods includes the six nutrient classes:
water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
exs of nonnutrients and other compounds:
fibers, phytochemicals, pigments, additives, alcohols
is made of chemicals similar
to food. containing both organic and inorganic compounds
Composition of the human body
those that contain carbon
organic compounds
those that donot contain carbon
inorganic compounds
are those the body cannot make or
cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet needs. These
are also called indispensable nutrients.
essential nutrients
Energy-Yielding Nutrients:
Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Fat and
Protein
are macronutrients
because the body needs them in large quantities.
Carbohydrate, fat, and protein
do not provide energy and
are known as micronutrients because the body needs
them in smaller quantities.
Water, vitamins, and minerals
Energy is measured in:
Calories (calories,
kilocalories, kcalories, kcal).
food energy is measured in
joules
Energy from food differs in energy density. Carbohydrate
yields -- kcalories per gram, protein --kcalories per gram,
and fat --kcalories per gram.
4 4 9
is fueled by food as energy is released
from bonds within carbohydrate, fat, and protein as they are
broken down.
Activity in the body
The processes by which food is broken down
to yield energy are called
metabolism
Excess energy is stored in the body as compounds such as
body fat
Other roles of energy-yielding nutrients include:
building body
tissues and regulating body processes.
are organic, essential nutrients
that allow the body to obtain energy from
carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
Vitamins
are inorganic, essential nutrients
that are found in the bones, teeth, and
body fluids.
minerals
is an indispensable and abundant
essential nutrient that participates in many
life processes.
Water
tests hypotheses and develops
theories.
Nutrition Research
Information based on personal experience is
known as an
anecdote
Types of studies
Epidemiological studies
Laboratory-based studies
Human intervention or clinical trials
include cross-sectional, casecontrol,
and cohort designs.
Epidemiological studies
include animal studies and
laboratory-based in vitro studies.
Laboratory-based studies
receives the treatment being studied
Experimental group
does not receive the treatment.
control group
Sample sizes must be large to accurately
detect differences
are used to control the placebo effect with subjects
in experiments.
Placebos
do not know if
they are in the experimental or control group.
Subjects in blind experiments
the researchers and the
subjects do not know their groups to prevent researcher
bias.
double blind experiments
involve
studying variables and correlations, or
relationships, between variables.
Correlations and causes in experiments
is when the same thing happens to
two variables: as one increases the other increases.
positive correlation
when the opposite things
happen to two variables: as one increases the other
decreases.
negative correlation
must be drawn when
examining or generalizing the results of a study.
cautious conclusions
is used to evaluate
the procedures used and the conclusions
drawn from a study.
a peer review process
the
conclusions were supported by the
findings.
When a study has validity
is used to confirm or disprove
findings.
replication
defines the requirement of
a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the
healthy population.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
use the EAR as a base
and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known
nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations. This
recommendation considers deficiencies.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA
reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient
without an established RDA that appears to be sufficient.
Adequate Intakes (AI)
is a maximum daily amount of a
nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond
which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
represents
the average daily energy intake to maintain energy
balance and good health for population groups.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
represents the range of intakes for
energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and
nutrients and reduce risk of chronic disease.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
(AMDR)
The Dietary Reference Intakes
(DRI)
• Using Nutrient Recommendations
Comparing Nutrient Recommendations:
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
World Health Organization (WHO)
evaluates
the many factors that influence or reflect
nutritional health.
Nutrition Assessment of Individuals -
Nutrition Assessment of Individuals
Stages in Nutrient Deficiency:
• Overt is easy to observe
• Primary deficiency is inadequate dietary intake
• Secondary deficiency is caused by disease or drugs
• Subclinical deficiency is the early stages of deficiency
without outward signs
• Covert is hidden
uses
survey research to collect data on foods people
eat and people’s health status.
National Nutrition Monitoring Program
is used for nutrition policy, food
assistance programs and food supply
regulation.
Data collected
is a national public health initiative under
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that
is published every 10 years.
Healthy People
National Health Goals:
Healthy People
Identifies the most significant threats to health
• Focuses efforts on eliminating these threats
show an increased intake of fast
food, increased portion sizes, and an increased
consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks.
This intake is associated with an increased risk for
overweight and obesit
national trends
indicates that behavior and
certain conditions are related to disease.
research
Five of six leading causes of death have a
relationship with
diet or alcohol.
Many leading causes of death have a
relationship with
obesity
risk factors:
Risk factors persist over time.
providing sufficient energy and
essential nutrients for healthy people
Adequacy (dietary)
consuming the right proportion of foods
balance
balancing the amount of foods
and energy to sustain physical activities and metabolic
needs
kcalorie (energy) control—
measuring the nutrient content of a food
relative to its energy content
Nutrient density
kcalorie foods denote foods that contribute energy
but lack nutrients.
empty
providing enough but not too much of
a food or nutrient
moderation
eating a wide selection of foods within and
among the major food groups
variety
Adequate nutrients within energy needs, Consume a balanced diet, Weight management, Physical activity, Food groups to encourage, fats, carbs, sodium and potassium, alcohol, safrty,
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Maintain a healthy body weight.
Prevention of weight gain
Weight management
Increase energy expenditure and decrease
sedentary activities.
Include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching,
and resistance exercises.
Choose a variety of fruits, vegetables, milk and
milk products, and whole grains.
Food groups to encourage
• Limit saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and
trans fats.
• Choose monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
fat sources.
• Choose lean, low-fat, or fat-free foods.
fats
Choose those that are high in fiber.
• Choose products with a minimal amount of
added sugar.
• Decrease the risk of dental caries.
carbs
Choose foods that are low in salt and high in
potassium.
sodium and potassium
Drink in moderation.
• Some should not consume
alcohol
Wash and cook foods thoroughly and keep
cooking surfaces clean.
• Avoid raw, undercooked, or unpasteurized
products.
food safety
sort foods into groups
based on nutrient content.
Food group plans
important in selecting
foods for a nutritious diet providing
balance, variety, adequacy and
moderation.
Diet-Planning Guides
A combination of whole grains, vegetables,
legumes, fruits, meats or meat alternates
and milk products is essential
to a healthy
diet.
The USDA Food Guide assigns foods to the five
major food groups of
fruits, vegetables, grains, meat
and legumes, and milk.
The recommended intake of each food group depends
upon
how many kcalories are required.
There are different kcalorie requirements for those who
are sedentary compared to those who are
active
There are five subgroups of vegetables including:
dark
green vegetables, orange and deep yellow vegetables,
legumes, starchy vegetables, and others
should be a goal when choosing vegetables.
variety
USDA Food Guide
• Key nutrients for each group
• Allows for food substitutions within a group
• Legumes may be considered a vegetable or a
meat alternative
Notable Nutrients
The typical American diet requires an increased
intake of
vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and
milk and a decrease in refined grains, fat, and
sugar.
• Foods can be of high, medium or low nutrient density.
• Must consider energy needs when choosing these foods
Nutrient Density
Calculated by subtracting the amount of energy required
to meet nutrient needs from the total energy allowance
• Those with discretionary kcalories may eat additional
servings, consume foods with slightly more fat or added
sugar, or consume alcohol.
Discretionary KCalorie Allowance
For weight loss, a person should avoid consuming
discretionary kcalories.
are used to measure servings of fruits, vegetables,
and milk.
cups
are used to measure servings of grains and
meats.
ounces
can be used to
estimate portion sizes.
Visualization with common objects
• Foods that fall into two or more groups
• Examples are casseroles, soups, and sandwiches
Reliance on plant foods such as grains, vegetables,
legumes, fruits, nuts and seeds
Similar food groups and servings sizes
Vegetarian Food Guide
• Asian examples
• Mediterranean examples
• Mexican examples
ethnic food
The width of the bands represent:
the amount
that should be consumed.
help to achieve kcalorie
control and moderation.
exchange lists
Foods are sorted by
energy-nutrient
content.
Foods are sorted by energy-nutrient
content.
exchage lists
Choose the number of servings needed
from each group.
Putting the Plan into Action
have been treated thus changing
their properties.
Processed
foods
have
improved nutrition
fortified foods
products are not refined. Examples
include brown rice and oatmeal.
whole-grain
have nutrients added that were not
part of the original food.
fortified foods
Eat 3 or more ounceequivalents per day. half your grains should come from these
whole grains
Health benefits of whole grains
• Coronary heart disease
• Type 2 diabetes
• Colon cancer
• Weight control
What counts as an “ounce
equivalent” serving of a
whole grain food?
• 1 slice whole wheat bread (16
g of whole grain)
• ½ cup of cooked cereal, rice,
pasta
• 1 cup dry flake cereal
• ¼ cup dense cereal (granola)
• 1 ½ cups puffed cereals
Whole grains are consumed in the
U.S. as a single food or an
ingredient in a product--•
Amaranth
• Barley
• Brown rice
• Buckwheat
• Bulgur
• Emmer
• Farro
• Grano
• Kamut
• Millet
• Oatmeal and
whole oats
• Popcorn
Good sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber
vegetables
dark green
Broccoli, spinach, romaine,
collard, turnip, mustard greens
Orange
Carrots, sweet potatoes, winter
squash, pumpkin
Legumes
Pinto beans, kidney beans,
lentils, chickpeas, tofu
Starchy
White potatoes, corn, green
peas
Subgroup 5. Other vegetables
• Tomatoes
• Cabbage
• Celery
• Cucumber
• Lettuce
• Onions
• Peppers
is good
source of vitamin C,
potassium, and
calcium and vitamin D
if fortified
Orange juice
Provides vitamins, minerals, fibers and
phytochemicals
Fruits
Provides minerals, protein and B vitamins
Meat, fish and poultry
often fortified with vitamins A and
D
Milk
3
cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk
or equivalent milk products
Adults and children 9 years and older:
2 cups per day of
fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk
products
Children 2-8 years:
should choose
alternative sources of calcium (fortified
cereals & juice, seafood, soy foods)
Non-dairy eaters
Listed by quantity and percentage standards per serving,called
daily values
list
represent clear links between a nutrient and a
disease or health-related condition.
Reliable health claims on the FDA “A”
list health claims have supportive evidence but
are not conclusive.
b
list health claims have limited evidence and
are not conclusive.
c
list health claims have little scientific evidence
to support the claim.
d
Claims made without FDA approval
Cannot make statements about diseases
Structure-Function Claims
Consumer Education
Lifestyle
practices are often different from omnivores
Health Benefits of Vegetarian Diets
are common due to high intakes of
fiber and low intakes of fat.
healthy body weights
is often lower due to lower body weights,
low-fat and high-fiber diets, and plenty of fruits and
vegetables.
blood pressure
due to high-fiber diets,
eating monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low
intakes of dietary cholesterol
• Inclusion of soy products like tofu and tempeh
Lower incidence of heart disease
due to high intakes of fruits and
vegetables
Lower incidence of cancer
• Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume animal-derived products
and thus high-quality protein.
• Meat replacements and textured vegetable can
be used.
Protein
consumed with foods that are high in vitamin C can help
vegetarians meet iron needs.
Iron - Iron-rich vegetables and fortified grain products
can
provide zinc to those who do not consume meat.
Consuming legumes, whole grains, and nuts
is not an issue for the lactovegetarian.
____rich foods should be consumed.
Calcium
may not receive enough B12 from the
diet.
Vegans
Consumption of fortified products or
supplementation may be necessary.
Vitamin B12
can come from sunlight exposure or
fortified foods.
Vitamin D
Food sources include
flaxseed, walnuts, soybeans, and their oils.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
is the key to adequacy.
Be careful of macrobiotic diets.
a variety of food
is the process of breaking down
foods into nutrients to prepare for
absorption while overcoming 7 challenges.
Digestion
is the flexible muscular
tube from mouth to anus
The
gastrointestinal (GI) tract
is the inner
space of the tract.
the lumen
is the beginning of the digestive system.
the mouth
chewing
mastification
closes to prevent food from entering the pharynx.
epiglottis
is the tube that leads the bolus to the
stomach
esophagus
at the upper and lower ends of the esophagus.
cardiac sphincter
The stomach adds juices and grinds the bolus to a
semiliquid mass called
chyme
regulates the flow of partially digested
food into the small intestine.
The pyloric
sphincter
receives digestive juices from
the gallbladder and the pancreas.
the small intestine
The three
segments of the small intestine are the:
duodenum,
the jejunum and the ileum.
begins at the ileocecal
valve and ends at the rectum and anus.
the large intestine (colon)
pushes the digestive contents along.
Peristalsis
action involves circular, longitudinal, and
diagonal muscles.
stomach
is contractions by circular muscles
that contract and squeeze contents to promote
mixing with digestive juices.
segmentation
open and close
passageways. This prevents reflux and controls
the passage of contents.
Sphincter contractions
Includes digestive enzymes that act as catalysts in
hydrolysis reactions
The Secretions of Digestion
moistens foods
saliva
includes hydrochloric
acid.
gastric juice
secrete mucus to
protect the walls of the stomach from the high acidity levels
that are measured by pH units.
The goblet cells of the stomach wall
contains intestinal enzymes (carbohydrase,
lipase, protease) and bicarbonate.
Pancreatic juice
is produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and
acts as an emulsifier to suspend fat.
Bile
Energy-yielding nutrients are disassembled
for absorption.
The Final Stage
facilitates nutrient absorption.
The enormous surface area of the small
intestine
can be absorbed through simple
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, or active
transport.
Nutrients
the fingerlike projections within the folds of
the small intestine that move in a wave-like pattern
to trap nutrients.
Villi
are the microscopic hairlike projections
on each villi.
Microvilli
the tubular glands that lie between the
intestinal villi.
Crypts
located between the villi and
secrete a protective thick mucus.
goblet cells
“Food combining” which emphasizes separating
food for digestive purposes is a
myth
are released to the bloodstream.
Water-soluble nutrients and small products of fat
digestion
are released to the lymphatic system.
Fat-soluble vitamins and larger fats form chylomicrons
routed to the liver before being transported
to the cells.
Water-soluble nutrients and small fats
entering from the
lymph, bypass the liver at first and
eventually enter the vascular system.
Fat soluble nutrients
consists of arteries,
capillaries and veins
vascular system
directs blood from
the GI tract to the liver.
The hepatic portal vein
takes blood from the liver
to the heart.
hepatic vein
protects against toxic substances.
liver
consists of one-way
vessels to transport fluid
The lymphatic system
is a clear, yellowish fluid without red blood
cells or platelets that moves through the body by
muscle contractions.
Lymph
is the lymph’s route to the heart.
The thoracic duct
provides a return of lymph to
the vascular system`
are the lymphatic vessels of the intestine
that absorb nutrients and pass them to the
lymphatic system.
is important
in the functioning of the digestive and
absorptive systems.
homeostasis
keep conditions normal in GI Tract.
The body’s hormonal and nervous control
systems
flora or microflora
are bacteria found in the GI tract
that can be beneficial to health. An
example is the bacteria found in yogurt.
probiotics
are foods that are used as food
by intestinal bacteria.
probiotics
act as messengers, and those
involved in the GI tract are known as
enterogastrones.
Hormones
is secreted by the stomach.
Gastrin
is secreted by the duodenum.
Secretin
is protected against enzymes by
creating enzyme precursors called proenzymes or
zymogen.
pancreas
targets the gall bladder
Cholecystokinin
healthy digestive tract
• Food becomes lodged in the trachea.
• The larnyx cannot make sounds.
• The Heimlich maneuver may need to be used.
choking
Body’s adaptive mechanism
• Dehydration is a concern.
• May be self-induced as in eating disorders
vomiting
• Frequent, loose, watery stools
• Irritable bowel syndrome or colitis is one of
the common GI disorders.
Diarrhea
• Defecation habits are different among people.
• Many causes are possible.
• Hemorrhoids may be a problem.
constipation
is a condition in which the intestinal
walls weaken and bulge.
Diverticulosis
The bulging pockets are
called
diverticula.
is the internal washing of the
large intestine and can be hazardous.
Colonic irrigation
are triggered by eating or drinking
too fast.
hiccups
is the backward
flow of stomach contents into the
esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux
may help
indigestion.
Antacids and acid controllers
can be gastric or duodenal.
• Strategies
ulcers
are made of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
Carbohydrates
are single sugars (most are
hexoses).
Monosaccharides
serves as the essential energy source,
and is commonly known as blood sugar or
dextrose.
glucose
is the sweetest, occurs naturally in honey
and fruits, and is added to many foods in the form
of high-fructose corn syrup.
Fructose
arely occurs naturally as a single
sugar.
galactose
are pairs of monosaccharides, one
of which is always glucose
Disaccharides
link monosaccharides together.
Condensation reactions
split molecules and commonly occur
during digestion
Hydrolysis reactions
consists of two glucose units. It is produced during
the germination of seeds and fermentation.
Maltose
is fructose and glucose combined. It is refined from
sugarcane and sugar beets, tastes sweet, and is readily
available.
Sucrose
is galactose and glucose combined. It is found in
milk and milk products.
Lactose
few glucose units
bound/linked together in straight or
branched chains.
(oligosaccharides)
many glucose units
bound/linked together in straight or
branched chains.
(polysaccharides)
complex carbs
(polysaccharides) and oligosaccharides
glycogen
starches
provide structure in plants, are very
diverse, and cannot be broken down by human
enzymes.
dietary fibers
are viscous and can be digested by
intestinal bacteria (this property is also known as
fermentability)
soluble fibers
are nonviscous and are not
digested by intestinal bacteria. These fibers are
found in grains and vegetables.
insoluble fibers
are found in plant foods.
dietary fibers
are health-benefiting fibers that
are added to foods or supplements.
functional fibers
considers both dietary and functional
fibers.
total fiber
escape digestion and are
found in legumes, raw potatoes and unripe
bananas.
resitant starches
has a close association
with fiber and binds some minerals.
Phytic acid or phytate
begins to hydrolyze starch into short
polysaccharides and maltose.
the salivary enzyme amylase
a feeling of fullness
satiety
continues to
hydrolyze starch while fiber delays gastric
emptying and provides a feeling of fullness
acids
hydrolyzes starches to
disaccharides and monosaccharides in the small intestine
pancreatic amylase
among other enzymes (maltase, sucrase,
and lactase)
fibers remain and
attract water, soften stools and ferment,
in the large intestine
Carbohydrate Absorption
are absorbed by
active transport
Glucose and galactose
is absorbed by facilitated
diffusion.
fructose
Symptoms include bloating, abdominal discomfort,
and diarrhea.
Lactose Intolerance
The body stores _________ as glycogen in liver and
muscle cells.
glucose
The body uses ____________ for energy if glycogen
stores are available.
glucose
If glycogen stores are depleted, the body makes
glucose from __________
protein
is the conversion of protein to glucose.
Gluconeogenesis
is having adequate carbohydrate
in the diet to prevent the breakdown of protein for energy.
Protein-sparing action
The accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood is called
ketosis
upsets the acid-base balance in the body.
ketosis
The body can use glucose to make _________-when
carbohydrates are consumed excessively.
body fat
may cause dizziness and
weakness.
• Low blood glucose
may cause fatigue
High blood glucose
can be fatal.
Extreme fluctuations of blood glucose levels
moves glucose into the cells and helps to lower
blood sugar levels.
insulin
brings glucose out of storage and raises blood
sugar levels.
Glucagon
acts quickly to bring glucose out of storage
during times of stress.
epinephrine
The Regulating Hormones
insulin
glucagon
epinephrine
Balance _______ within the normal range by eating
balanced meals regularly with adequate complex
carbohydrates.
glucose
Blood glucose can fall outside the normal range
with ________-
hypoglycemia or diabetes.
is the less common type with no insulin
produced by the body.
Type 1 diabetes
is the more common type where fat cells
resist insulin.
Type 2 diabetes
is blood glucose that is higher than normal
but below the diagnosis of diabetes.
Prediabetes
is low blood glucose and can often
be controlled by dietary changes.
Glucose in the Body
• The Constancy of Blood Glucose
Hypoglycemia
is how quickly the blood
glucose rises and elicits an insulin response.
Glycemic response
classifies foods according to their
potential for raising blood glucose.
Glycemic index
refers to a food’s glycemic index and the
amount of carbohydrate the food contains.
Glycemic load
The benefit of the glycemic index is
controversial.
poses no major health problem
except dental caries.
sugar
may displace nutrients
and contribute to obesity.
Excessive intakes
Naturally occurring sugars from fruits,
vegetables and milk are
acceptable
sources.
first ingredient.
Nutrient deficiencies may develop from the intake
of
empty kcalories
Just because a substance is natural does not mean it is
nutritious. (Example:
honey
may be caused by bacteria residing
in dental plaque and the length of time sugars
have contact with the teeth.
dental caries
can contribute to the
development of body fat.
Excessive sugar intake
may be able to alter blood lipid levels and
contribute to heart disease in some.
sugar
There is no scientific evidence that ____ causes
misbehavior in children and criminal behavior in
adults.
sugar
There is a theory that sugar increases ___-levels, which can lead to cravings and addictions.
serotonin
The USDA Food Guide states that added
sugars can be included in the diet as part
of
discretionary kcalories
state to limit intake of
foods and beverages that are high in
added sugars.
Dietary Guidelines
DRI suggest added sugars should
contribute no more than ___ of a day’s
total energy intake.
25%
bind with bile and thereby lower blood
cholesterol levels
soluble fibers
may also displace fat in the diet.
fiber
glucose absorption
Enhance the health of the _____ which can then
block the absorption of unwanted particles
GI tract
Health Effects of Starch and Fibers
encourage whole grains
grains
starchy and nonstarchy vegetables
differ in carbohydrate content
vegetables
vary in water, fiber and sugar content
fruits
contain carbohydrate;
cheese is low
milk
are low but
nuts and legumes have some carbohydrate
meat
list grams of carbohydrate, fiber and
sugar; starch grams can be calculated.
Food Labels
Used primarily in soft drinks and as a tabletop
sweetener
• Rapidly excreted in the urine
• Does not accumulate in the body
• Has been removed from list of cancer-causing
substanc
Saccharin
Aspartame
Research confirms safety
Acesulfame-K (acesulfame potassium)
Sucralose
Neotame
Tagatose
Pending FDA approval
Alitame and Cyclamate
is the level of
consumption, maintained every day and still safe
by a wide margin.
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)
Artificial Sweeteners and Weight Control
• Lacks research
• Classified as a dietary supplement
• Not required to have testing and FDA
approval
Stevia – An Herbal Alternative
Also called nutritive sweeteners, sugar
alcohols, and polyols
• Maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt,
and lactitol
• Absorbed more slowly and metabolized
differently in the body
• Low glycemic response
• Side effects include GI discomfort
Sugar Replacers