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35 Cards in this Set

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acid-base balance
the balance maintained between acid and base concentrations in the blood and body fluids.
acidosis
too much acid in the blood and body fluids.
acids
compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution.
acute malnutrition
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) that develops rapidly due to a sudden and dramatic demand for nutrients. The person suffering from acute malnutrition may be of normal weight or may be overweight, but serum protein levels are low. In contrast, chronic malnutrition develops as a consequence of insufficient intake of energy and protein over long periods of time and is characterized by underweight, depleted fat stores, and normal serum protein levels.
alkalosis
too much base in the blood and body fluids.
amino acids
building blocks of protein. Each has an amino group and an acid group attached to a central carbon, which also carries a distinctive side chain.
antibodies
large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced in response to invasion of the body by unfamiliar molecules (mostly proteins) called antigens. Antibodies inactivate the invaders and so protect the body.
bases
compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution.
buffers
compounds that can reversibly combine with hydrogen ions to help keep a solution’s acidity or alkalinity constant.
carbohydrates
energy nutrients composed of monosaccharides.
complementary proteins
two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other.
complete protein
a protein containing all the amino acids essential in human nutrition in amounts adequate for human use.
conditionally essential amino acid
an amino acid that is normally nonessential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it becomes greater than the body’s ability to produce it.
denaturation
the change in a protein’s shape brought about by heat, acid, or other agents. Past a certain point, denaturation is irreversible.
dipeptide
two amino acids bonded together.
dysentery
an infection of the gastrointestinal tract caused by an amoeba or bacterium that gives rise to severe diarrhea.
edema
the swelling of body tissue caused by leakage of fluid from the blood vessels and accumulation of the fluid in the interstitial spaces.
enzymes
protein catalysts. A catalyst is a compound that facilitates chemical reactions without itself being changed in the process.
fatty liver
an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver resulting from many disorders, including exposure to excessive alcohol, excessive weight gain, and diabetes mellitus; also called hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fatty infiltration of the liver.
fluid and electrolyte balance
maintenance of the necessary amounts and types of fluid and minerals in each compartment of the body fluids.
hemoglobin
the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells.
hormones
chemical messengers. Hormones are secreted by a variety of glands in the body in response to altered conditions. Each travels to one or more target tissues or organs and elicits specific responses to restore normal conditions.
incomplete protein
a protein lacking or low in one or more of the essential amino acids.
kwashiorkor
a disease related to protein-energy malnutrition (PEM).
lacto-ovo vegetarians
people who include milk or milk products and eggs, but omit meat, fish, shellfish, and poultry from their diets.
lacto-vegetarians
people who include milk or milk products, but exclude meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, and eggs from their diets.
marasmus
a disease related to PEM. Marasmus results from severe deprivation, or impaired absorption, of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals.
mutual supplementation
the strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food. Such protein combinations are sometimes called complementary proteins.
pH
the concentration of hydrogen ions. The lower the pH, the stronger the acid. Thus pH 2 is a strong acid; pH 6 is a weak acid; pH 7 is neutral; and a pH above 7 is alkaline.
polypeptide
ten or more amino acids bonded together. An intermediate strand of between four and ten amino acids is an oligopeptide.
protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
a deficiency of protein and food energy; the world’s most widespread malnutrition problem, including both marasmus and kwashiorkor.
proteins
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms arranged into strands of amino acids. Some amino acids also contain sulfur atoms.
semivegetarians
people who include some, but not all, groups of animal-derived foods in their diets; they usually exclude meat and may occasionally include poultry, fish, and shellfish; also called partial vegetarians.
tripeptide
three amino acids bonded together.
vegans
people who exclude all animal-derived foods (including meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, and milk) from their diets; also called strict vegetarians or total vegetarians.