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28 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of fitness?
the characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity; more broadly, the ability to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to a physical challenge; or the ody's ability to withstand stress of all kinds
Cardiorespiratory conditioning
improvements in heart and lung function and increased blood volume, brought about by aerobic training.
overload principle
the training principle that a body system in order to improve must be worked at frequencies, durations, or intetnsities that gradually increase physical demands.
Aerobic exercises
walking, running, aerobics, swimming
Anaerboic exercises
weight lifting, 100yrd dash
Extreme activity intensity (list fuel source)
Lasts 8 to 10 s uses ATP-CP (immediate availability), no oxygen needed
Very High activity intensity (list fuel source)
Lasts 20 sec to 30 min. Uses ATP from carbs (lactic acid). No oxygen needed.
High Activity intensity
Lasts 3min to 20 min uses ATP from carbs. Needs oxygen
Moderate activity intensity
More than 20 min. ATP from fat, needs oxygen.
Glygoen use and Activity
Glycogen depends on intensity and duration. During the first twenty minutes a person usees mostly glycogen for fuel.
Fat use and activity
Fat used in physical activity is liberated as farry acids from the internal fat stores and from the fat under the skin. Areas that have the most spare donate the most, even though they don't appear the fattiest. Muscles do not own the fat around them.
Types of activity that use fat
The body will use more fat in the activites that are less intense, if there is more oxygen then the body can use more fat. Fat is used usually in the first few minutes of an activity.
Protein and Physical activity
Synthesis of protein is supressed during activity. Used mostly in recovery. Protein contributes at most 10% of energy. People who eat more carbs use less protein.
ATP
is always readily available.
CP
immediatley after the onset of a demand, before ATP dwindle, muscle enzyme begins to break down into CP. It can split to release phosphate and replenish ATP. CP is produced during rest by reversing the process that occurs during muscular activity
Iron Deficiency Anemia
the hemoglobin in red blood cells is needed to deliver oxygen to the cells, loss of the these red blood cells decreases the amount of oxygen that can get to the body.
sports anemia
not a true anemia. Early on in training most athletes develop this. Strenuous aerobic activity promotes destruction of more fragile, older red blood cells.
Importance of hydration during training
the body relies on watery fluids as the medium for al lof its life-supporting activities. Dehydration causes fatigue, hyptothermia, and hyponatremia
Hyponatremia
a decreased concentraion of sodium in the blood caused by profuse sweating and overhydrating
Pre activity meals
between 300 and 800 kcals primarily from carbs at are familiar and well tolerated.
Post activity meals
carbohydrate diet once again, can be gotten by sports drinks. Low protien, fat and fiber.
Placenta
The organ that develops inside the uterus early in pregnancy through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen and returns carbon dioxide and other waste products to be excreted.
Normal events of fetal development
Zygote: single cell, newly fertilized ovum, within two weeks implants itself in the uterine wall.
Embryo: quickly developing. At end of this stage has a complete central nervous system, beating heart, and digestive system along with well defined fingers and toes and the beginnings of facial features.
Fetus: Organs grow to maturity, grows from one ounce to about 7.5 lbs.
Critical periods
finite periods during development in which certain events occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages, usually a period of rapid cell division.
Folate intake and pregnancy
Pretects against neural tube defects
weight gains during pregnancy
Underweight: 28 to 40 lbs
Healthy weight: 25 to 35 lbs
Overweight: 15 to 25 lbs
Obese: 15lb minimum
Highest needed nutrients during pregnancy
Protein, carbs, vitamin A, vitamin E, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Thaimin, Riboflavin, Zinc, Iodine, Folate.
Energy needs of pregnant women
An additional 340 kcals a day during the second trimester and 450 kcals the third. about 15%- 20% more.