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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
– to denature proteins and activate pepsin
an enzyme to digest protein
Gastric lipase
an enzyme to digest fat
• The most abundant carbohydrate
• Produced by plants through photosynthesis
• Monosaccharides
contain only one molecule
• Glucose, fructose, galactose
• Disaccharides
contain two molecules
• Lactose, maltose, sucrose
• Long chains of glucose molecules
• Hundreds to thousands of molecules long
• Starch, glycogen, most fibers
• Plants store carbohydrates such as starch
• We digest (break down) starch to glucose
• Grains, legumes, and tubers are good sources of starch in our diet
• Animals store carbohydrate as glycogen
• Stored in the liver and muscles
• Not found in food and therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate
• Dietary fiber is the non-digestible part of plants
• Grains, rice, seeds, legumes, fruits
• Functional fiber is carbohydrate extracted from plants and added to food
• Cellulose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium
• Total fiber = dietary + functional fiber
Salivary amylase
• Enzyme that begins carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
• Breaks carbohydrates down to maltose
Pancreatic amylase
• Enzyme produced in the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine
• Digests carbohydrates to maltose
Storage of Glycogen
Excess glucose is converted to glycogen by the liver.
• Produced by beta cells of the pancreas
• Helps cells take in glucose from the blood
• Stimulates the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen
Glycemic index
• A food’s ability to raise blood glucose levels
• Foods with a low glycemic index:
• Are better for people with diabetes
• Are generally higher in fiber
• May reduce the risk of heart disease and colon cancer
Recommended Dietary Allowance
is 130 grams/day just to supply the brain with glucose.
Type 1 diabetes
• Accounts for 10% of all cases
• Patients do not produce enough insulin
• Causes hyperglycemia – high blood sugar (glucose)
• Requires insulin injections
• May be an autoimmune disease
Type 2 diabetes
• Most diabetics have Type 2 diabetes
• Body cells are insensitive or unresponsive to insulin
• Excess insulin is often produced
• Causes hyperglycemia because cells cannot take in the glucose from the blood
• Low blood sugar (glucose)
• Reactive hypoglycemia results when too much insulin is produced after a meal
• Causes shakiness, sweating, anxiety
• Fasting hypoglycemia results when too much insulin is produced even when the patient has not eaten
Three types of lipids are found in foods
• Triglycerides
• Phospholipids
• Sterols
Saturated fats (triglycerides)
Saturated fatty acids have hydrogen atoms surrounding every carbon in the chain.

Monounsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen atoms in only one region.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen atoms in multiple locations.
• Cis
same side of the carbon chain
• Trans
opposite sides of the chain
• Are composed of
• Glycerol backbone
• 2 fatty acids
• Phosphate
• Are soluble in water
• Are manufactured in our bodies so they are not required in our diet
Sterols: Lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms.
• Are essential components of cell membranes and many hormones
• Are manufactured in our bodies and therefore are not essential components of our diet
Digestion of Fats
As fat enters the small intestine
• Bile is secreted from the gall bladder into the small intestine
• Bile disperses fat into smaller fat droplets
• Pancreatic enzymes break fat into 2 separate fatty acids and a monoglyceride
Fatty acids are arranged as lipoproteins for absorption and transport
Chylomicrons are absorbed by cells of the small intestine, then
• Travel through the lymphatic system
• Transferred to the bloodstream
A lipoprotein produced by cells lining the small intestine.