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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the six major nutrients
Carbohydrates, Lipids,Protein
Vitamins, Minerals & Water
What are the dietary sources
Grains, Fruits, vegatables, meats, fish, and milk products
Carbohydrates uses & breakdown in the body
Simple Carb sugars (mono & disaccharides): Fruit, honey & milk

Complex carb (polysaccharides): Bread, ceral, flour, pasta, nuts & potatoes

Glucose - used by body cells to make ATP

Neurons & RBC's rely almost entirely upon glucose for their energy needs.

Excess glucose is converted to glycogen & stored

Breakdown: glycolysis --Cellular respiration
Lipids - Fatty acids & Glycerol uses & breakdown in the body
Neutral fats = tryglycerides, made of fatty acids & glycerol
Most abundant dietary lipids
In animals & plant foods

Function: Hlep to absorb fat-soluble vitamins
Major energy fuel of hepatocytes & skeletal muscle
Component of cell membranes & myelin sheaths
A protective cushion around the body organs and insulating layer beneath the skin

Easy to store concentrated source of energy
Lipids Fatty acid chains
Saturated - single bonds, all carbons are saturated w/Hydrogen

Unsaturated - one double bond

Polysaturated - several double bonds

Breakdown: broken into lipid droplets by enzyme lipase into fatty acids & glycerol
Proteins - Amino Acids uses & breakdown in the body
*Complete proteins = meet all the body's amino acid requirements, the 8 essential amino acids sources - eggs, milk, milk products, meats & fish

Incomplete proteins = Do not have all 8 amino acid sources - legumes, nuts, seeds, grains & vegatables

Protein supply: Essential a. a the building blocks for all the other a. a. and proteins

Nitrogen for substances containing nitrogen ex: nucleic acids, ATP
Protein Synthesis
All or none rule: 1. All amino acids needed must be present at same time for protein synthesis to occur
2. Adequacy of caloric intake = enough ATP, Protein will be used as fuel if there is insufficient carbohydrate or fat available
3. Nitrogen balance: the rate of protein synthesis =s the rate of breakdown & loss via excretion (skin, urine)
4. Hormonal control: Then anabolic hormones that accelerate protein sysnthesis must be present
Protein Synthesis Breakdown
Proteins are broken down into amino acids

Amino acids are then transaminated=the amine group is removed
Fat-soluble vitamins
Water-Soluble vitamins
C - citrus fruits, green veggies, iron conn. tiss, matrix synthesis
Niacin - poultry, meat, fish, green leafy veggies
Biotin - egg yolk, nuts, liver
Folic acid - OJ, eggs, dark green veggies
B1 - Thiamin, meats, liver, green veggies
B2 - liver, poultry, fish
Calcuim sources & use in the body
milk, shellfish, bone matrix, teeth

Heart rate, membrane permeability, Muscle contraction, Propogation of neuron impulses
Phosphorus sources & use in the body
Meat, Eggs, Grains, Legumes
Phopholipids, ATP, Nucleic acids
Magnesium sources & use in the body
Milk, legumes, green veggies
Conversion of ATP to ADP
Sodium & Chloride sources & use in the body
Table salt
Maintain normal osmolarity, water balance, essential in nerve & muscle function, electrolytes
Sulfur sources & use in the body

Potassium sources & use in the body
Meat, milk, legumes
Connective tissue

Fruits, fish, grains,
Osmotic pressure across cell membrane, muscle contraction protein synthesis