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83 Cards in this Set

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a set of values for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy people in the USA and Canada.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
the average daily amounts of nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
the average amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified critierion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when a RDA cannot be determined
Adequate intake (AI)
the amount of a nutrient that will maintain biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age and sex group
Facilitation Nutrition Research & Policy: EAR (Estimated Average Requirements
3 monosaccharides?
glucose, galactose, fructose
3 disaccharides?
maltose, sucrose, lactose
2 energy yielding polysaccharides?
starch and glycogen
___ is a plant polysaccharide.
starch
___ is the storage form of glucose.
glycogen
Glycogen is made and stored by ___ and ___ of human beings and animals.
liver, muscle tissues
3 complex carbohydrates?
starch, glycogen, and some fibers
5 fibers?
cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums and mucilages, lignins
Main component of cell wall in plants?
cellulose
The fiber that is abundant in vegetables and fruits, especially citrus fruits and apples?
pectins
Main constituent in cereal fibers?
hemicellulose
Have similar structures and are used as additives or stabilizers by the food industry?
Gums and mucilages
A fiber
Tough, woody parts of plants; few foods people eat contain much of this.
lignin
Soluble fibers and insoluble fibers are both digestible or indigestible?
indigestible
6 nutrients?
water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals
soluble fibers?
pectins, gums, mucilages, some hemicellulose
insoluble fibers?
cellulose, lignin, some hemicellulose
Sugar alcohols are or are not carbohydrates?
are
4 examples of artificial sweeteners?
saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame K
People with the metabolic disorder, PKU, cannot dipose of the amino acid ___.
phenylketonuria
The hormone ___ acts to liberate glucose from the liver.
glucagon
The liver can store a certain amount or unlimited amount of glycogen.
certain amount
The body can store a certain amount or unlimited amount of fat?
unlimited
The ___ and ___ need their energy as glucose.
brain, nervous system
Ketones are a waste product from the breakdown of ___ during starvation when ___ is not available.
fat, carbohydrate
What are large complex molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon?
sterols
Omega-6 fatty acids are found where?

Omega-3 fatty acids?
seeds of plants

fish oils
3 examples of sterols?
cholesterol, vitamin d, sex hormones (testosterone & estrogen)
Both plant and animal derived foods contain ___.
sterols
Only animal-derived foods contain ___.
cholesterol
Cholesterol is made by the ___ from either ___ or ___.
liver, carbohydrate, fat
2 routes of cholesterol?
1. May be made into bile to be stored in the gallbladder.

2. Travels in the bloodstream.
Bile is made by the ___ from ___.
liver, cholesterol
___, especially ___ fat is the main influential factor in raising blood cholesterol
total fat, saturated
___ fatty acids lower blood cholesterol.
polyunsaturated
2 carbohydrate based fat replacers?
oatrim and z-trim
Protein based fat replacer?
simplesse
fat-based fat replacer?
salatrim and olestra
One type of phospholipid?
lecithins
The softer a fat is, the more saturated or unsaturated it is?
unsaturated
How many essential amino acids are there?
9
When glucose or fatty acids are limited, then, cells are forced to use ___ for energy and glucose.
amino acids
severe deprivation or impaired absorption of protein, energy, vitamins, and mineral

chronic or acute malnutrition?
marasmus, chronic
acute protein malnutrition
Kwashiorkor
Proteins recommendations for a health adult = ___ gram protein/kilogram
0.8
a protein lacking one or more of the essential amino acids
incomplete protein
contains all the essential amino acids in amounts adequate for human use
complete protein
a complete protein that is easily digested and absorbed by the body; give an example
high-quality protein, egg protein
an essential amino acid supplied in less than the amount needed to support protein synthesis
limiting amino acid
2 or more incomplete proteins when combined together create a complete protein; give an example
complementary proteins, rice and beans
Gastric juices contain ___, ___ acid, and what two enzymes?
water, HCL, pepsin, lipase
___ juice contains sodium bicarbonate.
pancreatic
Absorbption of nutrients occurs in the ___.
small intestine
Bile is made by the ___ and stored by the ___.
liver, gallbladder
Blood leaving the digestive system goes via the ___ to the ___.
veins, liver
The lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells into the body.
chylomicron
VLDL are composed primarily of ___.
triglycerides
LDL is composed primarily of ___.
cholesterol
HDL is composed primarily of ___.
protein
LDL carries ___ and ___ from the ___ to the cells of the body.
triglycerides, cholesterol, liver
HDL transports ___ to OR back to the liver.
back to
Bacteria multiply at temperatures between ___ degrees and ___ degrees.

What is this called?
40, 140, danger zone
___ can be reconverted back to glucose but ___ cannot.
pyruvate, acetyl CoA
___ is interconvertible with pyruvate therefore can produce energy or become glucose.
glycerol
Fatty acids are broken down to form ___.

Can this be turned into glucose?
acetyl CoA, No
Amino acids of proteins can be converted to ___ or ___.
pyruvate, acetyl CoA
Excess carbohydrate is stored as ___ in the ___ and ___.
glycogen, liver, muscles
Excess fat is stored in ___ cells as ___.
fat, triglycerides
Amino acids will lose their nitrogens and be converted through the intermediates pyruvate and acetyl CoA to ___.
tryglycerides
Women with a measurement of ___ inches or larger and men with ___ inches or larger have a high risk for central obesity.
35, 40
an index of a person's weight in relation to height
Body mass index (BMI)
The enzyme that promotes fat storage in fat cells and muscle cells?
lipoprotein lipase
A protein produced by fat cells under the direction of the obesity gene; increases satiety and energy expenditure.
leptin
the body tends to maintain weight by means of its own internal controls
set-point theory
appetite suppressant; may cause high blood pressure
sibutramine
inhibits the production of fat-digesting enzymes in the pancreas and reduces fat absorption by 30%
orlistat
3 types of surgeries for weight loss?
gastric banding, gastric bypass, gastric partitioning
the energy needed to maintain life when a person is at complete rest after a 12 hour fast
basal metabolism
the rate at which the body spends energy for these maintenance activities
basal metabolic rate