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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the importance of carbohydrates?
- yield 4 kilocal/g
- major source of energy
- Fiber is a complex CHO
What is the importance of Proteins?
- yield 4 kilocal/g
- Amino acids are the most important component of protein and are essential for synthesis of the body tissue in growth, maintenance, and repair
- animal sources (meat, fish, dairy) and plant sources (grains, legumes, seeds, nuts)
What are the effects of diets deficient in protein?
- increases risk for decreased osmotic pressure --> edema
- decreases production of fibrinogen and vitamin K which leaves body more prone to bleeding
- Decreases the production of WBCs and globulins, therefore leaving the body more prone to infection
What is the importance of lipids in the diet?
- yield 9 kilocal/g
- source of energy
- made up of triglycerides and fatty acids
- produce cell membranes and hormones
What is the importance of vitamins in the diet?
- organic substances essential for normal metabolism
- fat-soluble: A, D, E, K
- water-soluble: B vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, C
Where is Vitamin A present?
- liver, sweet potatoes, carrots, milk, egg yolks, mozzarella cheese
- fat-soluble
Where is Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) present?
- fruits and vegetables, cereals, beef, poultry, and fish
- water-soluble
Where is Vitamin E present?
- almonds, oils, wheat germ, safflower, corn, soybean oils, mangoes, nuts, broccoli
- fat-soluble
What is the importance of minerals in the diet?
- inorganic elements that catalyze biochemical reactions
- Calcium and phosphorus make up 80% of minerals in body. Others are sodium, potassium, sulfur, chlorine, magnesium, iron
- indestructible but some may be lost thru food processing Ex.) when whole-wheat flour is processed phosphorus and potassium are lost
What is the importance of water in the diet?
- fluid in which substances can be broken down and reformed for use by the body
- transports nutrients from cell to cell in blood
- bodily functions cease without water
Functions: transports nutrients, regulates body temp, aids in elimination of waste, provides structure to large molecules, needed for metabolic reactions, solvent, maintains blood volume, makes up about 60% of adult body weight
What is the importance of blood glucose?
- normal level 70-100 fasting
- glycogen is converted back to glucose to raise glucose level when glucose falls below desired range
- if glucose level is still too low, fat is broken down (lipolysis) and protein catabolism also occurs
What is hyperglycemia?
- blood glucose level rises excessively and there is not enough insulin produced to metabolize that amount of glucose
- signs/symptoms: visual changes, polyuria, weight loss, dehydration, fruity breath
- should encourage fluids
What is hypoglycemia?
- blood glucose level drops below 70 mg/dl
- can lead to seizures, coma, and death
- signs/symptoms: hungry, headache, shaky, cool and clammy skin
What is DGA?
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans
- joint effort between US Dept of Agriculture and Health and Human Services
- reviewed and revised every 5 years
What are the Daily Reference Intakes (DRI)?
- dietary standards established in the US recommending the amount of a nutrient required by the body, for good nutrition and provide the scientific basis for development of food guidelines
What is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)?
- recommended dietary allowances to meet the needs of 98% of the population, not the exact needs of the individual
- 1600-2800 calories/day
What is a full liquid diet?
- diet consisting only of foods that liquify at body temperature
- jello, sherbert, ensure
What is a clear liquid diet?
- foods that are clear and liquid at room temperature and provide oral fluids with minimal residue.
- nutritionally inadequate and used for short term (24 hrs)
- jello, popsicles, broth, coffee, tea
What is a pureed diet?
- food with smooth consistency, strained or blended
- ordered for patients with neurologic changes, CVA, fractured jaw
What is a mechanical soft diet?
- modified texture, ground, or blenderized and prepared with added liquids to make them easier to swallow
- chopped bananas, soft cooked vegetables, rice, flaked fish
What are soft diets?
- used when transitioning patient from full liquids to a regular diet
- ordered for debilitated clients who are unable to consume a regular diet or clients with mild GI problems
- white pastas, casseroles, cooked low fiber vegetables, mashed potatoes
What is a coumadin diet?
- well-balanced diet w/ no significant changes in eating habits
- discuss with MD before starting vitamins or supplements
- report diarrhea, upset stomach, or inability to eat to MD
- Vitamin K has a role in blood clotting and can work against the medicine
- important to eat a consistent amount of Vitamin K each day - not an overload (asparagus, black-eyed peas, cucumber peel, coleslaw, broccoli, romaine lettuce, brussel sprouts, green tomato, soybeans, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard greens, lettuce, spinach, chives, scallions, turnips, collard greens)
What are selective electrolyte regulated diets?
- patients with renal conditions require collaboration with a dietician
- intake of fluids, protein, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, vitamins, and other minerals are regulated
- low potassium diet: need to monitor intake of foods high in K and avoid apricots, avocados, bananas, cantaloupes, raw carrots, dried beans, peas, dried fruits, melons, oranges, orange juice, peanuts, potatoes, prune juice, spinach, tomatoes, tomato juice, tomato sauce, and winter squash
- Low sodium diets limit processed meats, canned foods, dairy, potatoes, and spices and seasoning
Where are antioxidants found?
- fruits and vegetables
- nuts, grains
- some meats
- poultry and fish
Where is beta-carotene found?
- foods that are orange in color: sweet potatoes, carrots, cantaloupe, squash, apricots, pumpkin, and mangoes
What are the routes of enteral nutrition?
- gastrointestinal: feedings bypass the oral cavity (mouth, teeth, tongue)
- nasogastric: nose to stomach
- Percutaneous endoscopic placement (PEG)
What are the safety guidelines for enteral nutrition?
- aseptic technique
- label equipment
- elevate HOB to 30 degrees
- trace all lines/tubing back to pt
- do not add food coloring (can lead to hypotension)
- always use an infusion pump
What are some complications of tube feedings?
- most common is pulmonary aspiration leading to pnemonia
- accidental placement into lung
- highest risk are those with decreased LOC, confusion, or trach
- routine assessment
- most accurate method for checking tube placement is x-ray
- non-radiologic method is checking aspirate from feeding tube (q4h)
What is parenteral nutrition?
- adm. of a solution consisting of glucose, amino acids, lipids, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements, and vitamins provided thru a peripheral or central venous catheter
- should be re-evaluated daily for continued need of PN
- Goal is to move toward the use of the GI tract for enteral nutrition and eventually normal oral intake