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35 Cards in this Set

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Nutrition
All the processes (ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and elimination) involved in consuming and using food for energy, maintenance, and growth.
Ingestion
Taking food into the digestive tract, generally through the mouth. In special circumstances, occurs directly into the stomach through a feeding tube.
Digestion
The mechanical and chemical processes that convert nutrients into a physically absorbable state.
Mechanical Digestion
Mechanical digestion includes chewing (mastication) and deglutition (swallowing food), the peristaltic waves and mucus secretions that move the food down the esophagus.
Chemical Digestion
The process whereby enzymes, gastic and intestinal juices, bile, and pancreatic juices change food into the individual nutrients that can be used by the body.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic, coordinated, serial contractions of the smooth muscles of the GI tract.
Chyme
an acidic, semifluid paste
Absorption
The process whereby the end products of digestion (i.e., individual nutrients) pass through the epithelial membranes in the small and large intestines and into the blood.
Metabolism
The conversion of nutrients into energy by the body.
Anabolism
The constructive process of metabolism wherein new molecules are synthesized and new tissues are formed, as in growth and repair.
Catabolism
the destructive process of metabolism, wherein tirrues or substances are broken into their component parts - releases energy.
Oxidation
energy is produced through this process which is the chemical process of combining nutrients with oxygen.
Metabolic rate
the rate of energy utilization in the body - expressed in units called calories.
Calorie
One calories is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree Celcius.
Kilocalories
Kcal = 1000 calories
Basal Metabolism
the amount of energy needed to maintain essential physiologic functions when a person is at complete rest - the lowest level of energy expenditure. Most affected by body composition. T3 and T4 governs rate.
Excretion
the process of eliminating or removing waste products from the body.
Nutrients
The body must have 6 types of nutrients to function efficiently and effectively: water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
Organic Nutrients
Build and maintain body tissues and regulate body processes.
Inorganic Nutrients
Provide a medium for the body's chemical reactions, transport materials, maintain body temperature, promote bone formation, and conduct nerve impulses.
Intake changes in one nutrient may lead to functional changes in another
Iron is better absorbed when vitamin C is present and calcium absorption depends on the presence of vitamin D
Water
The most important nutrient - more vital than food. Virtually all body functions require water. A person may only live approx 10 days without water. 55-65% of an adult's weight is water, 70-75% of an infant's weight is water. Decreases with age.
Intracellular Fluid
ICF - fluid within the cells
Extracellular Fluid
ECF - fluid outside the cells, inclufing plasma fluid, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, interstitial fluid (fluid in tissue spaces around each cell, and GI fluids
1000 mL of water is needed to process _____
every 1000 kcal eaten
Functions of Water
solvent, transporter, regulator of body temp, lubricant, component of all cells, hydrolysis
Sources of Water
- liquids consumed, including water, coffee, juice, tea, milk, and soft drinks
- foods consumed, especially vegetables and fruits
- metabolism, which produces water when oxidization occurs
Water losses are classified as _____ or ______
sensible, the person is aware of the loss - or - insensible, the person is not generally aware of the loss
Four ways the body loses water
Urine, Feces, Perspiration, Respiration
Dehydration
a deficiency of water
Positive water balance
an excessive accumulation of fluid in the body - when more water is taken in than is used and excreted - results in edema
causes of positive water balance
hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hypoproteinemia, some infections and cancers, and some renal conditions
Carbohydrates
made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen - CHO - the chief source of energy for all body functions - the major food source b/c they are the least expensive and most abundant
Daily requirements of carbs
up to 50-60% an individual's kcal - about 250 g/day.
functions of carbs
the primary source of energy for the body - needed to oxidize fats completely and for synthesis of fatty acids and amino acids.