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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Life Expectancy
The average # of years lived. Biological Factors: diseases, gender.
Lifestyle factors: exercise, polution, radiation, and smoking
Cases of disease (fatal or not) in a period of time
Cause & Effect
When we have scientific proof that one thing is causing another A-B
When we just know that two things are "related" in some way. 'When A goes up then B goes down."
An unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationships between two or more variables.
An inactive substance that is outwardly undistinguishable from the active substance whose effects are being studied.
deaths due to a specific disease in a period of time
double-blind design
neither the subjects nor the investigators know which study group is receiving the placebo or active substance.
Food groups
*breads and cereals
*meats and meat alternatives
*milk and milk products
Daily values
*6-11 servings of bread and cereals
*3-5 vegetables
*2-4 fruits
*2-3 meats and meat alternatives
*2 of milk and milk products
Empty kilocalorie foods
foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins & minerals
Nutrient density
measure of nutrients provided relative to energy provided.
More nutrients w/ fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.
over or under nutrition
Nutritional assessment
comprehensive analysis of person nutrition status, uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet hostories.
anthropometric measures, physical examinations, and laboratory tests.
Estimated average Requirement (EAR)
nutrient intake level estimated to meet the needs of 50% of a particular population.
Used to determine RDAs.
Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
values represent best estimates of how much of a nutrient intake is required to meet the requirements of practically all healthy individuals. 98%
Adequate intake (AI)
Simply a measurment of what healthy people consume.
Tolerable Upper level intake (UI)
Maximal intakes that are thought to be safe.
Dietary Referance Intake (DRI)
Set of preferance values of nutrient intakes to be used in assessing and planning diets for healthy people.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The # of infant deaths under the age of 1.
7/1000 in 2005.
Causes: infections, abuse, accidents, birth defects, poor maternal nutrition.
Any substance in food that the body can use either to:
*obtain energy
*synthesize tissues
*regulate body tissues
*other substances in food that influence health.
The way food energy is measured. amount of heat necessary to raise the temp of 1kg of water to 1 degree C.
the muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus.
the terminal outlet of the GI tract.
Lg. Intestine
the lower portion of intestine that completes the digestive process. It's segments are the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and the sigmoid colon
Sm. Intestine
10-foot in length of small-diameter intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. segments are the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
A muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme.
Esophageal Sphincter
A sphincter muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus. the lower esophageal sphincter is also called the cardiac sphincter.
The food pipe. The conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
A circular muscle surrounding and able to close, a body opening. Sphincters are found at specific points along the GI tract and regulate the flow of food particles
A portion. with respect to food. the amount swallowed at one time.
The semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along.
periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intesting at intervals along its length by its circular muscles.
chemical messengers. secreted by a variety of glands in response to altered conditions in the body.
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process. protein catalyst
Process in which food is broken down into absorbable units.
uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.