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31 Cards in this Set

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Monosaccharides, disaccharides & polysaccharides
α-1,4 & α-1,6
salivary amylase
produced in the mouth; initiates the breakdown of polysaccharides
pancreatic amylase
continues digestion in the proximal small intestine
Glucose, galactose, and fructose
ultimately transported to the liver where they undergo further metabolism
Carbohydrates are equivalent to __ kcal/gram
4 kcal/gram
Protein digestion starts in the _____
stomach
proteolytic enzymes
start to breakdown the proteins in the stomach. Digestion continues in the duodenum
Amino acids are absorbed through multiple mechanisms and ultimately transported to the _____
liver
proteins are equivalent to __ kcal/gram
4 kcal/gram
Almost all dietary lipids are in the form of _____ (>97%), _____ & _____ make up the remaining amount.
TAG, phospholipds & cholesterol
Lipid digestion begins in the mouth with _____ and continues in the stomach through the action of _____.
lingual lipase, gastric lipase
The bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the _____.
small intestines
Once assembled into chylomicrons, lipids are transported by the lymphatic vessels to the _____ and subsequently transported to the bloodstream. Lipids then enter the _____ where they are repackaged into _____.
thoracic duct, liver, VLDLs
Fats are equivalent to __ kcal/gram.
9 kcal/gram
digestion overview
digestion overview
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
current standard for measuring nutritional adequacy and is composed of four reference values
Estimate Average requirement (EAR)
average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and/or gender group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (98%) of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
Adequate Intake (AI)
recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy peopled. AI is used when RDA cannot be determined.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL the potential risk of adverse effects may increase.
The RDA for folic acid is ___ mg.
0.4 mg; FDA recommends that most breads, flours, corn meals, pastas, and rice to be enriched with folic acid.
macronutrients
proteins, carbohydrates and fats
nicronutrients
vitamins and minerals
alcohol is equivalent to __ kcal/gram
7 kcal/gram
Energy Density
measure of the energy (kcal) a type of food provides compared to the amount of food consumed (grams)
Nutrient Density
amount of a nutrient compared the amount of energy obtained from that nutrient. For example, one serving of fat-free milk is equal to 85 calories and it delivers 300 mg of calcium. Therefore the nutrient density is 300/85 or 3.5 mg of calcium/kcal
Empty kcal foods
foods that only provide energy without provide any beneficial nutrients. For example, soda pop is an empty kcalorie food
carbohydrate DRI range
45-65%
fiber DRI
14g/1000 calories
fats DRI range
20-35%
protein DRI range
10-35%