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114 Cards in this Set

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WHAT IS PHARMACOLOGY?
THE SCIENCE DEALING WITH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN LIVING SYSTEMS AND MOLECULES, ESPECIALLY MOLECULES FROM OUTSIDE THE SYSTEM
WHAT IS MEDICAL PHARMACOLOGY?
SCIENCE OF MATERIALS USED TO PREVENT, DIAGNOSE, AND TREAT DISEASE AND THE ROLE OF CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT THAT CAUSE DISEASE.
WHAT IS TOXICOLOGY?
DEALS WITH THE UNDISIREABLE AFFECTS OF CHEMICALS IN THE BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM; BASIC SCIENCE OF POISON
DEFINE THE TERM 'DRUG'.
ANY SMALL MOLECULE THAT, WHEN INTRODUCED INTO THE BODY, ALTERS THE BODYS FUNCTION BY INTERACTIONS AT THE MOLECULAR LEVAL
WHAT DOES THE ROOT "PHARMA-" MEAN?
DRUG
WHAT ARE PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS?
THE WAY IN WHICH A BODY HANDELS AND METABOLIZES A DRUG
WHAT ARE PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS?
THE AFFECTS OF DRUGS ON THE BODY
WHAT IS DRUG PERMEATION?
HOW DRUGS GET INTO THE BODY
WHAT IS THE COMMON MOLECULAR WEIGHT RANGE FOR DRUGS AND WHY?
100-1000 BECAUSE IT IS THEN CAPABLE OF CONVENIENT ADMINISTRATION AND EFFICIENT ABSORPTION AND DISTRUBUTION
HOW DO DRUGS VARY?
MOLECULAR SIZE, SHAPE, AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
WHAT DO THE MAJORITY OF DRUGS INTERACT WITH?
RECEPTOR SITES
HOW DO DIFFERENT CHEMICAL STRUCTURES EFFECT DRUGS?
IT AFFECTS HOW OUR BODY UTILIZES THE DRUG. EX- STRONG ACIDS OR BASES GENERALLY CAN'T GET INTO THE BODY.
HOW DOES THE HUMAN BODY SEE DRUGS?
THE BODY SEES DRUGS AS FOREIGN SO IT TRIES TO PREVENT METABOLISM AND GET RID OF IT.
NAME 4 WAYS THAT DRUGS MOVE ACROSS MEMBRANES.
1- AQUEOUS DIFFUSION
2- LIPID DIFFUSION
3- FACILITATED DIFFUSION
4- PINOCYTOSIS
NAME 5 ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION.
1- ORAL
2- INHALATION
3- TOPICAL
4- BUCCAL
5- INJECTION
NAME 5 ROUTES THE BODY USES TO ELEMINATE DRUGS.
1- KIDNEY
2- LIVER
3- GI TRACT
4- LUNGS
5- SWEAT/SALIVARY GLANDS
NAME 4 WAYS THAT DRUGS ARE DISTRIBUTED INTO THE BODY.
1- PROTEIN BINDING
2- BLOOD FLOW
3- MEMBRANE PERMEATION
4- TISSUE SOLUBILITY
HOW DO WE PREVENT THE BODY FROM SEEING A DRUG AS 'FOREIGN'?
WE TRICK IT AND MANIPULATE THE DRUG TO ALLOW PERMEATION
HOW BIG ARE DRUGS WHICH USE THE ROUT OF AQUEOUS DIFFUSION TO GET ACROSS A MEMBRANE?
SMALL
DESCRIBE LIPID DIFFUSION
WEAK ACIDS AND BASES- RELATIVLY MORE WATER SOLUABLE WHEN IONIZED (POLAR) AND MORE LIPID SOLUABLE WHEN UNIONIZED
WHAT KIND OF MOLICULES MOVE BEST ACROSS A MEMBRANE?
NUETRAL MOLECULES- CHARGED MOLECULES DONT MOVE ACROSS MEMBRANES VERY WELL
GIVE 2 EXAMPLES OF FACILITATED DIFFUSION.
1- BLOOD-BRAIN BARIER
2- THE CONVOLATED TUBULE IN THE KIDNEY
DESCRIBE THE SIZE OF DRUGS USED IN PINOCYTOSIS
LARGE SIZE
HOW DOES PINOCYTOSIS WORK?
IT TRICKS THE BODY AND THEN IT ENGULFS THE MOLECULE AND BRINGS IT INTO THE CELL
GIVE 3 EXAMPLES OF TOPICAL(LOCAL)/TRANSDERMAL (SYSTEMIC) DRUG ADMINISTRATION
1- MUCAS MEMBRANE
2- SKIN
3- EYE
NAME 6 WAYS OF INJECTION OF A DRUG
1- INTRAVENOUS
2- INTRAMUSCULAR
3- SUBCUTANEOUS
4- INTRAARTERIAL
5- INTRATHECAL
6- INTRAPERITONEAL
INTRAVENOUS
INTO THE VEIN
INTRAMUSCULAR
INTO THE MUSCLE
SUBCATANEOUS
JUST BENEATH THE SKIN
INTRAARTERIAL
INTO THE ARTERY (MORE TARGETED)
INTRATHECAL
INTO THE SMALL BODY COMPARTMENT IN THE SPINAL CORD
INTRAPERITONEAL
THE GI AB CAVITY
NAME 2 BENEFITS OF THE INTRAVENEOUS ROUTE
1- GETS AROUND ABSORBTION
2- GET IMMEDIATE EFFECTS
WHAT IS THE ABSORPTION PATTERN IN THE INTRAVENEOUS ROUTE
CIRCUMVENTED
NAME 4 SITUATIONS THAT INTRAVENOUS DRUG ADMINISTRATION WOULD BE BEST USED.
1- EMERGENCY USE
2-PERMITING TITRATION OF DOSAGE
3- INCREASED MOLECULARE WEIGHT PROTEINS (INSULIN)AND PEPTIDE DRUGS
4- SUITABLE FOR LARGE VOLUMESAND IRRITATING SUBSTANCES WHEN DILUTED
WHAT ARE 3 LIMITATIONS AND PRECAUSTIONS WITH USING THE INTRAVENOUS ROUTE?
1- INCREASED RISK OF ADVERSE EFFECTS
2- MUST INJECT SLOWLY
3-NOT SUITABLE FOR OILY/INSOLUABLE SUBSTANCES
SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE
UNDER THE SKIN
NAME 2 DIFFERENT ABSORPTION PATTERNS AND THEIR SITUATIONS FOR SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION
1- PROMPT-FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
2- SLOW AND SUSTAINED FROM REPOSITORY PREPARATIONS
WHAT IS THE SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE BEST USED FOR?
SOME INSOLUABLE SUSPENSIONS AND FOR IMPLANTATION OF SOLID PELLETS
NAME 2 LIMITATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS RELATED TO THE SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE
1- NOT SUITABLE FOR LARGE VOLUMES
2- POSSIBLE PAIN OR NEROSIS FROM IRRITATING SUBSTANCES
NAME 2 DIFFERENT ABSORPTION PATTERNS AND THEIR SITUATIONS FOR INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS
1- PROMPT-FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION
2- SLOW AND SUSTAINED FROM REPOSITORY PREPARATIONS
HOW IS THE INTRAMUSCULAR ROUTE BEST USED?
SUITABLE FOR MODERATE VOLUMES, OILY VEHICLES, AND SOME IRRITATING SUBSTANCES
WHAT ARE 2 LIMITATIONS OF INTRAMUSCULARE INJECTIONS?
1- ELIMINATED DURING ANTICOAGULENT MEDICATION
2- MAY INTERFERE WITH INTERPRETATION OF CERTAIN DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (EX. CREATIN KINASE)
NAME ONE DIFFICULTY WITH ORAL INGESTION OF DRUGS
IT IS HARD TO PREDICT HOW MUCH IS GOING TO BE ABSORBED AS THE RATE OF ABSORBTION VARYS IN EVERYONE.
NAME 3 POSITIVE ASPECTS OF ORAL INGESTION OF DRUGS
1- CONVENIENT
2-ECCONOMICAL
3- MOST SAFE
NAME ONE POTENTIAL PROBLEM WITH ORAL INGESTION
BIOAVAILIBILITY, MAY BE POTENTIALLY ERRATIC AND INCOMPLETE FOR DRUGS THAT ARE POORLY SOLUABLE, SLOWLY ABSORBED, UNSTABLE, OR EXTENSIVLY METABOLIZED BY THE LIVER AND/OR GUT
NAME A GROUP OF SEVERAL WAYS TO FIND OUT HOW MUCH DRUG METABOLISM IS GOING ON WHILE BEING LESS INVASIVE THAN BLOOD SAMPLES
THE GROUP OF ROUTES THE BODY NATURALLY USES TO GET RID OF DRUGS
WHAT ARE 3 NON-NUTRIENTS THAT ARE SOMETIMES PRESENT IN FOOD?
1- NATURAL PLANT CONSTITUENTS
2- PESTICIDES AND HERBICIEDES
3- INTENTIONAL/UNITENTIONAL FOOD ADDITIVES
WHAT ARE NATURAL PLANT CONSTITUENTS?
THEIR OWN NATURAL PESTICIDES THAT CAN MAKE UP 5-10% OF A PLANTS WEIGHT
NAME 2 THINGS THAT HAVE CHANGED IN HISTORY REGARDING HUMAN HEPATIC XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM
WE TAKE MORE DRUGS FOR MORE ILLNESSES; TOXINS HAVE INCREASED THERFORE PUTTING OUR BODY AT A HIGHER RISK TO OVERWHELM OUR SYSTEM.
WHAT DETERMINES OUR BODIES ABILITY TO CLEAR TOXIC FORMS OF XENOBIOTICS?
IT IS DETERMINED BY THEIR RELATIVE CELLULARE TOXICITY
TRUE OR FALSE: MANY FOREIGN COMPOUNDS THAT ENTER OUR BODY ARE NON-REACTIVE AND EXCRETED UNEXCHANGED.
TRUE
WHAT LEADES TO THE INACTIVATION OF FOREIGN COMPOUNDS?
UNDERGOING SPONTANEOUS NON-ENZYMATIC REACTIONS
WHAT DETERMINES THE EXTENT OF CELLULAR DAMAGE?
THE BALANCE BETWEEN INTRACELLULAR REACTIONS THAT RESULT IN ACTIVATION OF A SPECIFIC COMPOUND TO A MORE REACTIVE FORM AND THOSE DETOXIFICATION REACTIONS THAT MAKE THE COMPOUND LESS REACTIVE
MOST POTENTIALLY TOXIC FOOD-BORNE CHEMICALS OCCUR AT WHAT CONDITIONS?
RELATIVLY LOW CONCENTRATIONS
UNDER WHICH CONDITIONS CAN THE BODY EFFICIENTLY CLEAR POTENTIALLY TOXIC FOOD-BORNE CHEMICALS?
RELATIVLY LOW CONCENTRATIONS
WHAT POSES A POTENTIAL DANGER OF OVERLOADING THE DETOXIFICATION MECHANISM IN THE HUMAN BODY?
CLEARING PERSCREIBED AND OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS WHICH ARE OFTEN CONSUMED IN LARGE DOSES.
THE INCIDENCE OF DRUG INDUCED TOXICITY REMAINS (CHOOSE ONE): LOW, AVERAGE, HIGH?
LOW/RARE
NAME 7 FACTORS WHICH INCREASE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO XENOBIOTIC TOXICITY
AGE, HOSPITALIZATION, SEVERE LIVER OR KIDNEY DISEASE, DIETARY LIMITATIONS, ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, SMOKING, AND OTHER TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
WHICH AGE GROUPS ARE AT AN INCREASE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO XENOBIOTIC TOXICITY AND WHY?
NEWBORNES- HAVE AN INMATURE ENZYME SYSTEM
ELDERLY- LIMITATIONS IN PHYSICALFUNCTION, DEMINISHED NUTRITIONAL STATUS, GIVEN TOO MANY DRUGS
WHY DOES HOSPITALIZATION INCREASE A PERSONS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO XENOBIOTIC TOXCICITY?
BECAUSE THEY ARE GIVEN LOTS OF DRUGS, AND LIMITED DIETS AND MALNURESHED
WHY DOES SEVERE LIVER AND OR KIDNEY DISEASE INCREASE A PERSONS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO XENOBIOTIC TOXCICITY?
BECAUSE THEY COMPROMISE METABOLISM AND CLEARANCE OF DRUGS
NAME 2 EXAMPLES OF DIETARY LIMITATIONS THAT INCREASE A PERSONS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO XENOBIOTIC TOXCICITY
1- WEIGHT REDUCTION DIETS
2-POPULARE FAD DIETS AND FOOD FADS
WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SITE OF METABOLISM OF XENOBIOTICS? WHY?
THE LIVER; BECAUSE OF EFFICIENT PORTAL DELIVERY FOLLOWING GI TRACT ABSORPTION
IS THE LIVER THE ONLY WAY OF METOBOLIZING XENOBIOTICS?
NO, OTHER ORGANS ALSO METABOLIZE XENOBIOTICS WITH SIMILAR ENZYMES, BUT LACK OVERALL EFFICIENCEY OF THE LIVER.
WHAT OTHER ORGANS METABOLIZE XENOBIOTICS, AND WHAT IS THEIR RELATIVE PERCENTAGE IN COMPARISSION TO THE LIVER BEING 100%?
LUNG- 10-20%
KIDNEY-8%
INTESTINE- 6%
PLACENTA- 5%
ADRENAL- 2%
SKIN- 1%
WHAT DOES MFO STAND FOR?
MIXED FUNCTION OXIDASES, AKA MONOOXYGENASES
WHAT ARE SOME ENZYMES INCLUDED IN THE HEPATIC SYSTEM?
MFO + SEVERAL CONJUGATE ENZYMES INCLUDING SULFOTRANSFERASE, GLUCERONYL TRANSFERASE, AND GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE
HOW DOES THE MFO WORK?
THE MFO (AKA PHASE 1 RXN) 1ST ALTERS THE EXISTING FUNCTIONAL GROUPS (N- AND O- DEALKYLATION) OR INSERTS A POLAR GROUP (HYDROXYLATION)TO MAKE THE SUBSTRATE MORE WATER SOLUABLE
WHAT HAPPENS IN PAHSE II REACTIONS?
THE SECOND GROUP OF ENZYMES SPECIFICALLY CONJUGATE THE NEW POLAR GROUPS OR THOSE ALREADY PRESENTON THE SUBSTRATEWITH ENDOGENOUS COFACTORS, INCLUDING SULFATE, GLUCURONICACID, AND GLUTATHIONE.
NAME 4 PROSTHETIC GROUPS FROM OXEGENASES OF INTEREST AND THE ORGAN ASSOCIATED WITH IT
COPPER-ADRENAL, FLAVIN-BRAIN, NONHEME IRON-MANY TISSUES, AND HEME-MOSTLY LIVER, SPLEEN AND KIDNEY
HOW DOES MFO AFFECT DRUGS?
IT CHANGES THE SHAPE OF THE DRUG AND INTERACTS
WHAT FORMS DOES CYTOCHROME P450 EXIST IN?
VARIEOUS FORMS INCLUDING CYTOCHROME P448
DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ISOENZYMES OF CYTOCHROME P450?
EACH HAS DIFFERENT BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND DIFFERENT SUBSTRATE SPECIFICATIONS
MULTIPLE SUBSTRATES CAN BE METABOLIZED AT THE SAME TIME THROUGH WHICH ENZYME?
CYTOCHROME P450
WHICH ISOENZYMES ARE INDUCIBLE?
CYTOCHROME P450
WHAT DOES INDUCIBLE MEAN?
DERIVABLE OR INFERABLE
HOW ARE DRUGS IN YOUR SYSTEM METABOLIZED?
USING DIFFERENT ENXYMES WHICH MAY CHANGE THE DRUG INTO SEVERAL DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS WHEN CHANGING AND ATTACKING IT. AKA...MULTIPLE WAYS OF ATTACKING IT.
HOW DO DETOX SYSTEMS VARY AMONGUST HUMANS?
DETOX SYSTEMS ARE TAYLORED FOR EACH PERSON SO FOR EACH PEROSN, THEY WILL METABOLIZE THE DRUGS DIFFERENTLY.
WHERE IS THE LOCATION OF CONJUGATION ENZYMES AND WHAT PHASE DOES THIS OCCUR?
IT IS PRIMARILY LOCATED IN THE CYTOSOL AND THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND THIS OCCURS DURING PHASE II OF DETOXIFICATION,
WHAT DOES SULFOTRANSFERASE CONJUGATE?
PHENOLS, ALCOHOLS, AMINES, AND THIOLS, WITH SULFATE
WHAT COFACTOR IS USED TO FORM THE SULFATE ESTERS?
3'-PHOSPHOADENOSINE-5'
PHOSPHOSULFATE(PAPS); A HIGH ENERGY COFACTOR
WHAT INCREASES THE TOXIXITY AND CARCINOGENICITY OF CERTAIN AGENTS AND HOW DOES THIS OCCUR?
SULFUNATION, BY INCREASING THEIR ELECTROPHILLIC CHARACTER
WHAT IS THE MOST VERSATILE OF CONJUGATION REACTIONS?
GLUCURONYL TRANSFERASE (GT)
WHAT DOES GLUCERONYL TRANSFERASE TRANSFER AND WHAT IS THE ROUTE OF TRANSFERING?
IT TRANSFERS GLUCURONIC ACID FROM URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID (UDPGA) TO THE XENOBIOTIC
WHERE IS GT LOCATED?
IN THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND HAS BEEN SHOWN TO EXIST IN MORE THAN ONE FORM
WHAT ARE SOME SUBSTRATES OF GLUCURONYL TRANSFERASE?
PLANT AND DRUG PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AS WELL AS ENDOGENOUS SUBSTRATES SUCH AS STEROIDS AND BILIRUBIN
WHAT DO SULFOTRANSFERASE AND GLUCERONYL TRANSFERASE COMPETE FOR?
SIMILAR SUBSTRATES
AT WHAT LEVAL OF CONCENTRATION WILL WILL SULFONATION OCCUR MORE THAN GLUCURONIDATION?
LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF SUBSTRATES
WHAT HAPENS WHEN THE CONCENTRATIONS OF SUBSTRATES INCREASES?
THE AMOUNT OF GLUCURONIDATION EXCEEDS SULFATION
WHAT DOES THE SIMULTANEOUS METABOLISM OF ANILINE AND P-NITROANISOLE BY THE MFO PRODUCE?
BOTH P-AMINOPHENOL AND P-NITROPHENOL
INCREASED DRUG TOXICITY HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED WHEN...
ULTIPLE DRUGS HAVE COMPETED FOR SIMILAR CONJUGATION RXS
WHERE IS THE GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASES (GSH-T) LOCATED?
PRIMARILY IN THE CYTOSOL, BUT CAN ALSO OCCUR IN THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
WHAT IS CELLULAR GLUTATHIONE USED FOR?
THE CONJUGATION OF A VARIETY OF SUBSTRATES INCLUDING HALOGEN OR NITROBENZENES OR AROMATIC EPOXIDES
WHAT IS THE USE OF METOBOLIC COFACTORS?
THE MAJOR DETERMINATION OF DETOXIFICATION REACTIONS AND THE AVAILIBILITY OF COFACTORS NADPH, PAPS, UDPGA, GSH
HOW IS NADPH GENERATED?
FROM 3 ENZYMATIC PROCESSES (cofactor phase 1)
IF THERE IS NO GLUCOSE OR GLYCOGEN, HOW IS NADPH GENERATED?
CYTOSOLIC NADPH IS GENERATED FROM MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDATIONS
HOW IS PAPS SYNTHESIZED?
INORGANIC SULFATE BY TWO ENZYMATIC REACTIONS
WHAT IS PAPS REGULATED BY?
ATP
HOW IS THE MAJORITY OF CELLULAR SULFATE OBTAINED?
THE OXIDATION AND DESULFURAZATION OF CYSTEIN SULFUR
WHAT DOES PAPS STAND FOR?
PHOSPHOADENOSINE-5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE
WHERE DOES UDPGA BRANCH FROM?
G-1-P GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS TO THE URONIC ACID PATHWAY
HOW IS UDPGA AVAILIBILITY REGULATED?
BY THE PRESENCE OF GLUCOSE, ENERGY (UTP) AND NAD+
HOW IS GLUTATHIONE (GSH) SYNTHESIZED?
FROM 3 AMINO ACIDS- GLUTAMINE, CYSTEIN, AND GLYCINE
WHAT IS THE MAINTENENCE OF GSH DEPENDENT UPON?
THE AVAILIBILITY OF CELLULAR AMINO ACIDS
WHAT IS THE MOST IMOORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING THE MFO?
NUTRIENT
NON-NUTRIENTS CAN INCREASE WHICH ACTIVITIES ?
CHEMICALS IN FOOD, MAN MADE CHEMICALS (BHA,BHT), CHLORINATED HYDROCARBO PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES, DRUGS, AND ETHANOL
INDUCTION IS...
AN INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF ENZYMES
WHAT INCREASES THE RATE OF METABOLISM BY MFO FOR MANY DRUGS?
INDOLES
CHARCOAL BROILED FOODS____ THE RATE OF METABOLISM OF PHENACETIN
INCREASE
WHAT WILL INCREASE THE ISOENZYME CYTOCHROME P448 AND ARYL HYDROCARBON HYDROXYLASE (FOR METABOLIZING CARCINOGENS)
CHARBROILED FOODS (PYROLISIS OF FAT DRIPPINGS)
WHAT MAY INDUCE CERTAIN ISOENZYMES OF THE MFO?
PHENOBARBITOL AND ETHANOL
WHAT DO HIGH PROTEIN DIETS DO TO THE METABOLISM OF DRUGS?
INCREASE DRUG METABOLISM AND MFO COMPONENTS
LOW PROTEIN DIETNS AND HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIETS DO WHAT TO DRUG METABOLISM?
SLOW IT DOWN DRASTICALLY ACTUALLY INCREASING RISK OF TOXICITY