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85 Cards in this Set

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In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining:
blood calcium levels
Blood calcium is critical for:
transmission of nerve impulses.
muscle contraction.
maintenance of blood pressure.
Which is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?
milk
Vitamin D toxicity associated with:
supplements
Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ________ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency.
Fat
Newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin K at birth due to the fact that:
newborns do not have enough bacteria in their large intestine to make vitamin K.
In addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in our:
large intestine
Which of the following is a modifiable risk factor that increases one's chances of developing osteoporosis?
smoking
Fibrous protein that provides strength to bone tissue
collagen
Dense tissue found on the outer surface of all bone
cortical
Active form of vitamin D
calcitriol
Hormone that is secreted in response to high blood levels of calcium
Calcitonin
Porous tissue found inside bones
trabecular
Cells that break down bone tissue
osteoclast
Cells that stimulate the formation of bone
osteoblast
Vitamin D deficiency in childhood
rickets
Vitamin D deficiency in adults
osteomalacia
A deficiency of ________ is the most common deficiency worldwide.
Iron!
The oxygen-carrying protein found in our red blood cells is called
hemoglobin
A folate deficiency may lead to:
macrocytic anemia
Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of:
Nerve cells
Which nutrient requires intrinsic factor for absorption?
Cyanocobalamin
Heme iron is absorbed better than non-heme iron.

True or False
True
The iron found in red meat is poorly absorbed compared with the iron found in spinach.

True of False.
False
Calcium aids iron absorption.

True or False
False
Without adequate vitamin K, our blood will begin to clot excessively.

True or False
False
Vitamin K is synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine.

True or False
True
Adequate folate consumption is the most critical during the first trimester of pregnancy.

True or False.
True
Oxygen-carrying protein found in the blood. Contains iron.
Transferrin
Iron found in red meat
Heme iron
Iron found in spinach
non-heme iron
primary iron-transport protein in the blood
Hemoglobin
iron storage in cells
Ferritin
Oxygen carrying protein found in the muscle, contains iron.
myoglobin
The oxygen-carrying protein found in our red blood cells is called:
Hemoglobin
Which of the following is the primary iron storage protein?
Ferritin
NOT a good source of vitamin K?

A. exposure to sunlight
B. spinach
C. soybean oil
D. intestinal bacteria
A. exposure to sunlight
Which of the following explains why folate is critical to the health of a newly conceived embryo?
Folate is needed for proper cell division.
Folate deficiency during pregnancy is associated with
neural tube defects.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to:
megablastic anemia.
Who is most likely to be vitamin B12 deficient?

A. ovo-lacto vegan
B. vegan
C. adult female who eats chicken and tuna
D. adult male who eats hamburgers
B. vegan
Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of bulimia nervosa?

A. episodes of extreme overeating
B. self-starvation
C. both A and B
D. none of the above
c. both A & B
(episodes of extreme overeating & self-starvation)
Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionism, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of:
anorexia nervosa
Jessica always works out on the stairmaster for hours after eating a huge meal. This type of behavior is common in:
bulimia nervosa
In which of the following sports are male athletes at greater risk for developing bulimia nervosa?

A. basketball
B. football
C. wrestling
D. baseball
C. wrestling
All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT:

A. disordered eating.
B. menstrual dysfunction.
C. osteoporosis.
D. hypertension.
D. hypertension
Which of the following sports is frequently associated with its female athletes being at risk for developing the female athlete triad?

A. basketball
B. field hockey
C. soccer
D. swimming and diving
D. swimming and diving
A full-term pregnancy lasts ________ weeks.
38-42
The embryo is most vulnerable to teratogens during which stage of pregnancy?
1st trimester
From the third month to term, the developing human is called a(n):
fetus
A preterm infant is one that is born:
before 38 weeks' gestation
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the:
mother's prepregnancy body mass index.
During the first trimester, women are advised to gain no more than:
3-5 pounds
During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by ________ kilocalories per day.
350-450
The brain grows the most rapidly during the first ________ years of life.
2
Which of the following are cues that an infant is ready to accept solid foods?

A. The infant can sit up with support.
B. The infant's tongue extrusion reflex has begun to abate.
C. The infant is at least four months old.
D. All of the above are signs that an infant is ready for solid foods.
D. all of the above
About ________ percent of our total daily energy expenditure is attributable to basal metabolism.
60-75
Which of the following individuals would most likely have the highest basal metabolic rate?

A. a 20-year-old conditioned male athlete
B. a 50-year-old normal weight woman
C. a 45-year-old obese male
D. a 20-year-old sedentary female college student
A a 20-year old conditioned male athlete
George's dinner contains 750 kilocalories. How many kilocalories will George expend in order to process this meal (that is, what would be the thermogenic effect of food)?
38-75 kilocalories
Which component of energy expenditure is the most variable from one individual to another?
energy cost of physical activity
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?
individual will lose both adipose and lean body tissue
65) About _________ percent of our daily energy expenditure is attributable to the TEF.
5-10
66) Body mass index is:
ratio of a person's body weight to the square of their height
67) Which of the following BMI ranges is associated with an increased mortality rate?

A. <18.5
B. 20-25
C. >30
D. Both A and C
D. both A & C
(<18.5 & >30)
68) Abdominal adiposity increases a person's risk for:

A. diabetes mellitus.
B. heart disease.
C. osteoporosis.
D. A & B
D. A & B
(diabetes mellitus & heart disease)
69) The amount of energy expended by the body in digesting, absorbing, transporting, metabolizing, and storing nutrients is called:
the thermic effect of food
70) Obesity is classified as having a BMI of:
30-39.9
71) Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake

True or False
True
72) The energy expended due to physical activity accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.

True or False
False
72) The energy expended due to physical activity accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.

True or False
False
73) Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
A. stearic acid
B. oleic acid
C. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
C. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
74) All of the following are associated with gestational diabetes EXCEPT:
A. delivery of a low-birth-weight infant.
B. increased maternal risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
C. increased maternal risk of developing preeclampsia.
D. increased fetal risk of developing type 2 diabetes
A. delivery of a low-birth-weight infant.
The only thing that will "cure" preeclampsia is:
delivery of the infant
76) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding free radicals?

A. Free radicals are formed as a by-product of healthy metabolism.
B. Our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals.
C. Exposure to pollution decreases free radical production.
D. A free radical is an atom with paired electrons in its outermost shell.
A. Free radicals are formed as a by-product of healthy metabolism.
77) How do antioxidant vitamins stabilize free radicals?
donate electrons or hydrogens
78) Which water-soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized?
Vitamin C
79) Which of the following is a function of vitamin E?

A. protecting PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in cell membranes from oxidation
B. regenerating vitamin C by donating an electron
C. improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low
A. protecting PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in cell membranes from oxidation
80) Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?
A. milk and dairy products
B. fruits and vegetables
C. meat, fish, and poultry
D. vegetable oils
D. Vegetable oils
The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is:
scurvy
82) Which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?

A. smoking cigarettes
B. drinking alcohol
C. being a vegan
D. taking supplements of vitamin C
A. smoking cigarettes
83) Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?

A. milk and cheese
B. seafood
C. wheat and oats
D. green and red peppers
D. green and red peppers
84) Based on our class discussion, vitamin A is essential for:
maintaining healthy vision
86) The amount of ATP stored in a muscle cell will fuel the muscle's activity for:
A. 1-3 seconds.
B. 1-3 minutes.
C. 1-3 hours.
A. 1-3 seconds
87) The best time to replenish glycogen stores is:
A. right after exercising.
B. the day before exercising.
C. the day after exercising.
D. a few hours before exercising.
A. right after exercising
88) In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading be the most beneficial?
A. weight lifting competition
B. baseball game
C. cross country skiing for long distances
D. 100-yard dash
C. cross country skiing for long distances