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64 Cards in this Set

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SPINA BIFIDA


CONGENITAL (NEURAL TUBE) DEFECT LEAVING THE SPINE UNCLOSED AND THE SPINAL CORD OPEN IN VARIOUS DEGREES IN THE EMBRYONIC STAGE
SPINA BIFIDA
IUGR


INTRAUTERINE GROWTH FAILURE
IUGR
PIH (TOXEMIA)


A DISEASE OF MALNUTRITION RELATED TO DIETS LOW IN PROTEIN, KCALS, CALCIUM, AND SALT
PIH
GESTATIONAL DIABETES


DIABETES DURING PREGANANCY
GESTATIONAL DIABETES
MACROSOMIA


LARGE BABY
MACROSOMIA
BREAST FEEDING ADVANTAGES


1.FEWER INFECTIONS
2.FEWER ALLERGIES
3.EASE OF DIGESTION
4.CONVIENENCE
5.ECONOMY
BREAST FEEDING ADVANTAGES
ESSENTIAL FOR HEMOGLOBIN FORMATION


IRON
ESSENTIAL FOR HEMOGLOBIN FORMATION
COLOSTRUM


THIN, YELLOW FLUID FIRST SECRETED BY THE MAMMARY GLAND (PREMILK)
COLOSTRUM
COW'S MILK


NEVER FEED TO CHILDREN LESS THAN 1 YEAR OF AGE
COW'S MILK
SOLID FOOD INTRODUCTION


ABOUT 6 MONTHS OF AGE
SOLID FOOD INTRODUCTION
TODDLER


1 TO 3 YEARS OLD
TODDLER
PRESCHOOL AGE


3 TO 5 YEARS OLD
PRESCHOOL AGE
SCHOOL AGE


5-12 YEARS OLD
SCHOOL AGE
ADOLESCENCE


12-18 YEARS OLD
ADOLESCENCE
YOUNG ADULTS


18-40 YEARS OLD
YOUNG ADULTS
MIDDLE ADULTS


40-60 YEARS OLD
MIDDLE ADULTS
OLDER ADULTS


60 YEARS OLD AND OLDER
OLDER ADULTS
SENESCENCE


THE PROCESS OR CONDITION OF GROWING OLD
SENESCENCE
OSTEOPORSIS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS


1. LESS CALCIUM RICH FOODS (MILK/PRODUCTS CONSUMED
2. LOSS OF APPETITE
3. LESS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
4. DECREASED CAPACITY OF HE SKIN TO PRODUCE VITAMIN D WITH SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE
OSTEOPORSIS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
CONGREGATE MEALS


OLDER ADULTS CAN GATHER AND SHARE A MEAL AND SOCIAL SUPPORT WITH OTHERS
CONGREGATE MEALS
FOOD SAFETY POINTS


1. COOK FOODS THROUGHLY
2. WHEN COOKING AHEAD-COOL FOOD RAPIDLY AND FREEZE FOR LONG KEEPING
3. ANYTIME YOU ARE UNSURE IF FOOD IS SAFE-THROW IT OUT!
FOOD SAFETY POINTS
SALMONELLOSIS


UNSANITARY HANDLING OF FOOD AND UTENSILS CAN SPREAD THIS CONDITION AND CAUSE GASTROENTERITIS
SALMONELLOSIS
CLOSTRIDIA


ANEROBIC (CAN LIVE AND GROW IN A OXYGEN-FREE ENVIRONMENT)
CLOSTRIDIA
JEWISH CULTURE


KOSHER FOODS
NO PORK
NO COMBINING OF MEAT AND DAIRY
JEWISH CULTURE
MOSLEM CULTURE


ISLAMIC TEACHINGS "KORAN"
PORK IS PROHIBITED
ALSO EXPERIENCE "RAMADAN" 30-DAY PERIOD OF DAYLIGHT FASTING
MOSLEM CULTURE
GREEK CULTURE


FETA CHEESE
GREEK CULTURE
CAJUN CULTURE


CREOLE COOKING IN THE SOUTH
CAJUN CULTURE
NEEDED FOR BONE DENSITY


1. CALCIUM
2. PHOSPHORUS
3. VITAMIN D
NEEDED FOR BONE DENSITY
WOMEN WHO HAVE ALWAYS EATEN A WELL BALANCED DIET ARE IN GOOD STATE OF NUTRITION AT CONCEPTION--EVEN BEFORE THEY KNOW THEY ARE PREGNANT
.
POSITIVE NUTRITIONAL DEMANDS OF PREGNANCY
1. ENERGY NEEDS
2. PROTEIN NEEDS
3. KEY MINERAL AND VITAMIN NEEDS
4. DAILY FOOD PLAN
.
REASONS FOR INCREASED NEED FOR PREGNANCY

1. TO SUPPLY THE INCREASED FUEL DEMANDED BY THE ENLARGED METABOLIC WORKLOAD
2. TO SPARE PROTEIN FO RHT EADDED TISSUE-BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
.
NATIONAL STAND RECOMMENDS AN INCREASE OF 300KCAL PER DAY --2200-2500 KCALS
.
PROTEIN NEEDS
1. GROWTH ELEMENT FOR BODY TISSUES
2. RAPID GROWTH OF BABY
3.DEVELOPMENT OF PLACENTA
4.GROWTH OF MATERNAL TISSUES
5.INCREASED MATERNAL BLOOD VOLUME
6.AMNIOTIC FLUID
7.STORAGE RESERVES
.
PROTEIN SHOULD INCREASE

10G PER DAY UP TO 60G PER DAY
.
PROTEIN SHOULD INCREASE

10G PER DAY UP TO 60G PER DAY
.
ONLY COMPLETE PROTEIN FOODS OF HIGH BIOLOGIC VALUE

MILK, EGGS, CHEESE AND MEAT
.
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS FROM PLANT SOURCES

LEGUMES AND GRAINS ARE SECONDARY
.
PROTEIN RICH FOODS ALSO CONTRIBUTE OTHER NUTRIENTS

CALCIUM, IRON, AND B VITAMINS
.
HEMOGLOBIN

A CONJUGATED PROTEIN IN RED BLOOD CELLS THAT IS COMPOSED OF A COMPACT, ROUNDED MASS OF POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS FORMING GLOBIN, THE PROTEIN PORTION, AND ATTACHED TO AN IRON-CONTAINING RED PIGMENT CALLED HEME. CARRIES OXYGEN IN THE BLOOD TO CELLS
.
PLASMA PROTEIN


ANY OF A NUMBER OF PROTEIN SUBSTANCES CARRIED IN THE CIRCULATING BLOOD. A MAJOR ONE IS ALBUMIN, WHICH MAINTAINS THE FLUID VOLUME OF THE BLOOD THROUGH ITS COLLOIDAL OSMOTIC PRESSURE
.
ALBUMIN


A MAJOR PROTEIN IN MANY ANIMAL AND PLANT TISSUES, SPECIALIZED PLASMA PROTEIN MAINTAINING NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE
.
CALCIUM


CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND VITAMIN D

FETAL DEVELOPMENT OF BONES AND TEETH
CALCIUM/BLOOD CLOTTING
.
IRON AND IODINE


IRON--INCREASED HEMOGLOBIN
GREATER MATERNAL BLOOD VOLUME
BABY'S NECESSARY PRENATAL STORAGE OF IRON
.
IODINE

PRODUCING MORE THYROXINE, THYROID HORMONE NEEDED TO CONTROL THE INCREASED BASAL METABOLIC RATE DURING PREGNANCY. IODIZED SALT
.
VIATMINS A AND C--TISSUE GROWTH

B VITAMINS--COENZYME FACTORS/ENERGY

FOLATE--BUILD MATURE RED BLOOD CELLS
ALSO PERICONCONCEPTIONAL 2 MONTHS BEFORE TO 6WKS PREGNANT FOR HEALTHY EMBRYO
.
SPECIFIC NUTRIENTS--

NOT NECESSARILY SPECIFIC FOODS ARE REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL PREGANANCIES AND MAY BE FOUND IN A VARIETY OF FOODS
.
ALTERNATIVE FOOD PATTERNS


ETHIC AND VEGETARIAN
.
ALTERNATIVE FOOD PATTERNS


ETHIC AND VEGETARIAN
.
BASIC PRINCIPALS

PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD EAT A SUFFICIENT QUANTITY OF FOOD

PREGNANT WOMEN SHOULD EAT REGULAR MEALS AND SNACKS, AVOIDING ANY HABIT OF FASTING OR SKIPPING MEALS--ESPECIALLY BREAKFAST
.
NAUSEA AND VOMITING

SMALL MEALS AND SNACKS (DRY), EASY DIGESTIVE FOODS WITH LIQUIDS BETWEEN--NOT WITH MEALS
.
HYPERMESIS

NAUSEA AND VOMITING...SEVERE AND PROLONGED
.
CONSTIPATION


EXERCISE, INCREASE FLUIDS, NATURALLY LAXATIVE FOODS, SUCH AS WHOLE GRAINS, DRIED FRUITS, PRUNES AND FIGS..AVOID ARTIFICIAL LAXATIVES
.
IRON

INCREASED WITH ORANGE JUICE
DECREASED WITH MILK
.
WEIGHT GAIN FOR PREGNANCY

NORMAL 25-35 LBS
UNDERWEIGHT 28-40
OVERWEIGHT 15-25
TEENAGERS 35-40
TWINS 35-45
.
3 TYPES OF NOT OPTIMAL EATING PATTERNS

1 INSUFFICIENT FOOD INTAKE
2. POOR FOOD SELECTION
3. POOR FOOD DISTRIBUTION THROUGHOUT THE DAY
.
PICA

NAME GIVEN TO A PERVERTED APPETITE OR CRAVING FOR UNNATURAL FOODS, CHALK, LAUNDRY SOAP, STARCH OR CLAY
.
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

PREGNANT TEENAGERS
1. KNOW EACH CLIENT PERSONALLY
2. SEEK WAYS TO MOTIVATE CLIENTS
3. MAKE APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENTS
4. MAKE PRACTICAL INTERVENTIONS
5. SUPPORT THE TEENAGERS RESPONSIBILITY
.
HIGH RISK MOTHERS AND INFANTS
1. IDENTIFY RISK FACTORS INVOLVED
2. PLAN PERSONAL CARE
3. RECOGNIZE SPECIAL COUNSELING NEEDS
AGE AND (PARITY RATE..WHO HAVE HAD SEVERAL PREGNANCIES WITHIN A LIMITED NUMBER OF YEARS)
4. SOCIAL HABITS, ALCOHOL, CIGS, DRUGS, CAFFEINE
5. SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS
.
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
NUTRITIONAL RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY
ONSET OF PREGNANCY
AGE 15 TO 35 YEARS OLD
3 OR MORE PREGNANCIES A 2 YEAR PERIOD
POOR OB HISTORY OR POOR FETAL PERFORMANCE
POVERTY
TRENDY FOOD HABITS
NICOTINE, ALCOHOL OR DRUGS
DIET REQUIRED FOR CHRONIC DISORDER
LOW BMR OR HIGH BMR 85-120%
.
RISK FACTORS DURING PREGNANCY

LOW HEMOGLOBIN/HEMATOCRIT 12.O G/35.MG/DL
NO WEIGHT GAIN
EXCESSIVE WEIGHT GAIN
.
COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY
1. ANEMIA
2. NEURAL TUBE DEFECT
3. INTRAUTERINE GROWTH FAILURE
4. PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION (PIH)
5. GESTATIONAL DIABETES
6. PRE EXISTING DISEASE
.
ADVANTAGES OF BREAST FEEDING

FEWER INFECTIONS
FEWER ALLERGIES
EASE OF DIGESTION
CONVENIENCE AND ECONOMY

HUMAN MILK PROVIDES ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN QUANTITIES THAT ARE UNIQUELY SUITED FOR OPTIMAL INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
.
BLOOD VOLUME______DURING PREGNANCY.


INCREASES
.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING FOODS ARE COMPLETE PROTEINS OF HIGH BIOLOGIC VALUE AND HENCE SHOULD BE INCREASED DURING PREGNANCY?

MILK, EGGS, CHEESE
.