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318 Cards in this Set

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Active euthanasia
actions that directly bring about the client's death with or without consent
Actual loss
can be identified by others and can arise either in response to or in anticipation of a situation
Acute illness
typically characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short duration
acute pain
Pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period from illness, injury, or surgery, whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless of the intensity.
Adherence
the extent to which an individual’s behavior (for example, taking medications, following diets, or making lifestyle changes) coincides with medical or health advice
Advance health care directive
a variety of legal and lay documents that allow persons to specify aspects of care they wish to receive should they become unable to make or communicate their preferences
adventitious sounds
Added sounds superimposed on normal breath sounds and often indicative of underlying airway problems or diseases of the cardiovascular or respiratory systems.
Advocate
individual who pleads the cause of another or argues or plead for a cause or proposal
Algor mortis
the gradual decrease of the body's temperature after death
Allen test
Test used to determine patency of the radial and ulnar arteries.
anabolism
A condition that occurs when the intake of protein and calories exceeds the nitrogen loss.
angle of Louis
(Sternal angle) A horizontal ridge formed at the point where the manubrium joins the body of the sternum.
angular stomatitis
A clinical finding of poor nutrition, cracks at the corner of the mouth.
anthropometrics
Any scientific measurement of the body.
Anticipatory grief
grief experienced in advance of the event
Anticipatory loss
the experience of loss before the loss actually occurs
arterial aneurysm
A bulging or dilation caused by a weakness in the wall of an artery.
arterial insufficiency
Inadequate circulation in the arterial system, usually due to the buildup of fatty plaque or calcification of the arterial wall resulting in diminished pulses; cool, shiny skin; absence of hair on toes; pallor on elevation, red color when dependent; and deep muscle pain, usually in the calf or lower leg aggravated by activity and elevation of the limb.
arteries
Part of the peripheral vascular system that receive oxygen-rich blood from the heart and carry it to the organs and tissues of the body.
Asphyxiation
lack of oxygen due to interrupted breathing
Assessing
the process of collecting, organizing, validating, and recording data (information) about a client’s health status
Assignment
a downward or lateral transfer of both the responsibility and accountability of an activity from one individual to another
Assisted suicide
a form of active euthanasia in which clients are given the means to kill themselves
Atrioventricular Valves
Valves that separate the atria from the ventricles.
atrophic papillae
A clinical finding of poor nutritional health.
attending
Giving full time and attention to verbal and non-verbal messages.
auscultation
The skill of listening to the sounds produced by the body.
Autonomy
the state of being independent and self-directed without outside control, to make one's own decisions
Autopsy
an examination of the body after death to determine the cause of death and to learn more about a disease process
Beliefs
interpretations or conclusions that one accepts as true
Beneficence
the moral obligation to do good or to implement actions that benefit clients and their support persons
Bereavement
a subjective response of a person who has experienced the loss of a significant other through death
Bioethics
ethical rules or principles that govern right conduct concerning life
blood pressure
Pressure caused by waves of blood as it ebbs and flows within the systemic arteries.
bronchial sounds
Loud, high-pitched sounds heard next to the trachea and are longer on exhalation.
bronchophony
Auscultation of voice sounds, patient says "ninety-nine" and normal lung sound will be muffled.
bronchovesicular sounds
Sounds that are medium in loudness and pitch, heard between the scapula, posteriorly and next to the sternum, and anteriorly upon inhalation and exhalation.
bruit
An obstruction causing turbulence, indicated by a swishing sound.
Bundle Branches
Expressways of conducting fibers that spread the electrical current through the ventricular myocardial tissue.
Bundle of His Atrioventricular Node
Nodes that are intricately connected and function to receive the current that has finished spreading throughout the atria.
Burn
results from excessive exposure to thermal, chemical, electric, or radioactive agents
capillaries
The smallest vessels of the circulatory system that exchange gases and nutrients between the arterial and venous systems.
Carbon monoxide
an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that is very toxic
Cardiac arrest
the cessation of heart function
Cardiac Conduction System
The heart's conduction system which can initiate an electrical charge and transmit that charge via cardiac muscle fibers throughout the myocardial tissue.
Cardiac Cycle
The events of one complete heartbeat, the contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles.
Cardiac output
The amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle over 1 minute.
Caregiver
arrole that has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologically while preserving the client’s dignity
Caring
an essential aspect of nursing
Case management
a method for delivering nursing care in which the nurse is responsible for a case load of clients across the health care continuum
Case manager
a nurse who works with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and monitor outcomes
catabolism
A condition that occurs when there is a negative nitrogen balance.
Cephalocaudal
proceeding in the direction from head to toe
Cerebral death
the higher brain center or cerebral cortex is irreversibly destroyed
Change agent
a person (or group) who initiates changes or who assists others in making modifications in themselves or in the system
Charting by exception (CBE)
a documentation system in which only significant findings or exceptions to norms are recorded
Cheilosis
inflammation of mouth.
Chemical restraints
medications used to control socially disruptive behavior
Chronic illness
illness that lasts for an extended period of time, usually greater than 6 months
chronic pain
Pain that is prolonged, usually recurring or persisting over 6 months or longer, and interferes with functioning.
Closed awareness
a type of awareness in which the client is unaware of impending death
Closed questions
restrictive question requiring only a short answer
clubbing
Flattening of the angle of the nail and enlargement of the tips of the fingers is a sign of oxygen deprivation in the extremities.
Cognitive skills
(intellectual skills) that include problem solving, decision making, critical thinking, and creativity
Collaborative interventions
actions the nurse carries out in collaboration with other health team members, such as physical therapists, social workers, dietitians, and physicians
Comforting
a group of nursing interventions based on clients' cues of distress, with the goal of achieving client comfort
concreteness
Speaking to the client in specific terms rather than in vague generalities.
Congruent communication
the verbal and nonverbal aspects of the message match
Contemplation stage
the person acknowledges having a problem, seriously considers changing a specific behavior, actively gathers information, and verbalizes plans to change the behavior in the near future
Covert data (symptoms, subjective data)
information (data) apparent only to the person affected that can be described or verified only by that person
Creativity
thinking that results in the development of new ideas and products
Critical analysis
a set of questions one can apply to a particular situation or idea to determine essential information and ideas and discard superfluous information and ideas
Critical pathways
multidisciplinary guidelines for client care based on specific medical diagnoses designed to achieve predetermined outcomes
Critical thinking
a cognitive process that includes creativity, problem solving, and decision making
cues
Bits of information that hint at the possibility of a health problem.
cutaneous pain
Pain that originates in the skin or subcutaneous tissue.
Decision making
the process of establishing criteria by which alternative courses of action are developed and selected
Decode
to relate the message perceived to the receiver’s storehouse of knowledge and experience and to sort out the meaning of the message
Deductive reasoning
making specific observations from a generalization
deep somatic pain
Diffuse pain that arises from ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels, and nerves, tends to last longer than cutaneous pain.
Defining characteristics
client signs and symptoms that must be present to validate a nursing diagnosis
Delegation
the transfer of responsibility for the performance of an activity from one person to another while retaining accountability for the outcome
Dependent functions
with regard to medical diagnoses, physician-prescribed therapies and treatments nurses are obligated to carry out
Dependent interventions
hose activities carried out on the order of the physician, under the physician’s supervision, or according to specified routines
Diagnosis
a statement or conclusion concerning the nature of some phenomenon
Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)
a Medicare payments system to hospitals and physicians which establishes fees according to diagnosis
Diagnostic labels
title used in writing a nursing diagnosis; taken from the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association’s (NANDA) standardized taxonomy of terms
Diastole
The phase of ventricular relaxation in which the ventricles relax and are filled as the atria contract.
diet recall
24-hour recall, patient verbally recalls all food, beverages, and nutritional supplements or products consumed in a set 24-hour period".
Directive interview
a highly structured interview that uses closed questions to elicit specific information
Discharge planning
the process of anticipating and planning for client needs after discharge
Discussion
an informal oral consideration of a subject by two or more health care personnel to identify a problem or establish strategies to resolve a problem
Disease
an alteration in body function resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span
Do-not-resuscitate order (DNR)
a physician’s order that specifies no effort be made to resuscitate the client with terminal or irreversible illness in the event of a respiratory or cardiac arrest.
dullness
A high-pitched tone that is soft and of short duration.The level of the diaphragm during quiet respiration.
Dysfunctional grief
the state in which an individual or group experiences prolonged, unresolved grief and engages in detrimental activities
dyspnea
A change in normal breathing pattern, producing shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing.
edema
Increased accumulation of fluid which could indicate an obstruction of the lymphatic system.
egophony
Ausculation of voice sounds, patient says "E", normal lungs sound like "eeeeee".
Electric shock
occurs when a current travels through the body to the ground rather than through electric wiring, or from static electricity that builds up on the body
Electrocardiogram (EKG)
Electrical representations of the cardiac cycle are documented by deflections on recording paper.
Empathy
the ability to discriminate what the other person's world is like and to communicate to the other this understanding in a way that shows that the helper understands the client's feelings and the behavior and experience underlying these feelings
encoding
The process of formulating a message for transmission to another person.
Endocardium
The innermost layer of the heart, a smooth layer that provides an inner lining for the chambers of the heart.
End-of-life care
care provided in the final weeks before death
epitrochlear node
Node located on the medial surface of the arm above the elbow that drains the ulnar surface of the forearm and the third, fourth, and fifth digits.
Ethics
the rules or principles that govern right conduct
Etiology
the causal relationship between a problem and its related or risk factors
eupnea
The regular, even-depth, rhythmic pattern of inspiration and expiration; normal breathing.
Euthanasia
the act of painlessly putting to death persons suffering from incurable or distressing disease
Evaluating
a planned ongoing, purposeful activity in which clients and health care professionals
Evaluation statement
a statement that consists of two parts: a conclusion and supporting data
Exacerbation
the period during a chronic illness when symptoms reappear after remission
false reassurance
The client is assured of a positive outcome with no basis for believing in it.
Feedback
the response or message that the receiver returns to the sender during communication
Fidelity
a moral principle which obligates the individual to be faithful to agreements and responsibilities one has undertaken
fifth vital sign
Pain assessment.
flag sign
Dyspigmentation of mouth.
flatness
A high-pitched tone, very soft, and of very short duration.
Flowsheet
a record of the progress of specific or specialized data such as vital signs, fluid balance, or routine medications; often charted in graph form
Focus charting
a method of charting that uses key words or foci to describe what is happening to the client
focused interview
Interview used to clarify previously obtained assessment data, gather missing information about a specific health concern, update and identify new diagnostic cues as they occur, guide the direction of a physical assessment as it is being conducted, and identify or validate probable nursing diagnoses.
food frequency questionnaire
A questionnaire that assesses intake of a variety of food groups on a daily, weekly, or longer basis.
food security
A parameter used in nutritional assessment, free access to adequate and safe food.
Formal nursing care plan
a written or computerized guide that organizes information about the client’s care
fremitus
The palpable vibration on the chest wall when the client speaks. Vibratory tremors felt through the chest wall.
functional assessment
An observation to gather data while the client is performing common or routine activities.
general survey
Initial impressions based on what is seen, heard, or smelled during the initial phase of assessment.
genogram
A pictorial representation of family relationships and medical history.
glossitis
A clinical finding of poor nutrition, glands are smooth, beefy red or magenta.
Goals/desired outcomes
a part of a care plan that describes in terms of observable client responses, what the nurse hopes to achieve by implementing the nursing interventions
Grief
emotional suffering often caused by bereavement
Group
two or more people with shared purposes and goals
Group dynamics
forces that determine the behavior of the group and the relationships among the group members
Health
a state of being physically fit, mentally stable, and socially comfortable; it encompasses more than the state of being free of disease
Health behaviors
the actions a person takes to understand his or her health state, maintain an optimal state of belief, prevent illness and injury, and reach his or her maximum physical and mental potential
Health beliefs
concepts about health that an individual believes are true
Health care system
the totality of services offered by all health disciplines
health history
A comprehensive record of the client’s past and current health history gathered during the initial health assessment interview.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
a group health care agency that provides basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services to voluntary enrollees
health pattern
A set of related traits, habits, or acts that affect a client’s health.
Health promotion
any activity undertaken for the purpose of achieving a higher level of health and well-being
Health protection
behavior motivated by a desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness
Health risk assessment (HRA)
an assessment and educational tool that indicates a client’s risk for disease or injury during the next 10 years by comparing the client’s risk with the mortality risk of the corresponding age, sex, and racial group
Health status
the health of a person at a given time
Heart
An intricately designed pump composed of a meticulous network of synchronized structures.
Heart-lung death
the traditional clinical signs of death: cessation of the apical pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
Homan's sign
Diagnostic maneuver in which pain may increase with sharp dorsiflexion of the foot.
Hospice
the delivery of care for terminally ill clients either in health care facilities or in the client’s home
hyperresonance
Abnormally loud, low tone of longer duration than resonance.
hyperthermia
(Fever) may occur in response to viral or bacterial infections, or from tissue breakdown following myocardial infarction, malignancy, surgery, or trauma.
hypothermia
A response to prolonged exposure to cold.
Illness behavior
the course of action a person takes to define the state of his or her health and pursue a remedy
immunocompetence
A biochemical assessment laboratory measurement used in nutritional assessment.
Implementing
the phase of the nursing process in which the nursing care plan is put into action
Independent interventions
activities that the nurse is licensed to initiate as a result of the nurse’s own knowledge and skills
Independent practice associations (IPAs)
provide care in offices, clients pay a fixed prospective payment and IPA pays the provider. Earnings or losses are assumed by the IPA
Indicator
an observable patient state, behavior, or self-reported perception or evaluation; similar to desired outcomes in traditional language
Individualized care plan
a plan tailored to meet the unique needs of a specific client--needs that are not addressed by the standardized plan
Inductive reasoning
making generalizations from specific data
Infective Endocarditis
A condition caused by bacterial infiltration of the lining of the heart’s chambers.
Inferences
interpretations or conclusions made based on cues or observed data
Informal plan
a strategy for action that exists in the nurse’s mind
inspection
The skill of observing the client in a deliberate, systematic manner.
Integrated delivery system (IDS)
a system that incorporates acute care services, home health care, extended and skilled care facilities, and outpatient services
interactional skills
Actions that are used during the encoding/decoding process to obtain and disseminate information, develop relationships, and promote understanding of self and others.
Interpersonal skills
all the verbal and nonverbal activities people use when communicating directly with one another
intractable pain
Pain that is highly resistant to relief.
Kardex
the trade name for a method that makes use of a series of cards to concisely organize and record client data and instructions for daily nursing care--especially care that changes frequently and must be kept up-to-date
kilonychia
A clinical finding of poor nutrition, spoon-shaped ridges in the cardia.
landmarks
Thoracic reference points and specific anatomical structures used to help provide an exact location for the assessment findings and an accurate orientation for documentation of findings.
Leader
a person who influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal
Leading question
a question that influences the client to give a particular answer
Left Atrium
Forms the posterior aspect of the heart.
Left Ventricle
Egg shaped, most muscular chamber of the heart, located behind the right ventricle and forms the left border of the heart.
Living will
a document that states medical treatments(s) the client chooses to omit or refuse in the event that the client is unable to make these decisions
Livor mortis
discoloration of the skin caused by break down of the red blood cells; occurs after blood circulation has ceased; appears in the dependent areas of the body
Locus of control
(LOC) a concept about whether clients believe their health status is under their own or other’s control
lymph
Excess fluid from the tissue spaces.
lymph nodes
Clumps of tissue located along the lymphatic vessels either deep or superficially in the body.
lymphatic vessels
Vessels that extend from the capillaries of their system to the two main lympathic trunks and form their own circulatory system in which their collected fluid flows to the heart.
Maintenance stage
the person integrates newly adopted behavior patterns into his or her lifestyle
malnutrition
(Undernutrition) describes health effects of insufficient nutrient intake or stores.
manual compression test
Test used to determine the length of varicose veins.
manubrium
The superior portion of the sternum.
Marfan's Syndrome
A degenerative disease of the connective tissue, which over time may cause the ascending aorta to either dilate or dissect, leading to abrupt death.
mediastinum
Part of the thorax, or thoracic cavity, that contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, and major blood vessels of the body.
Moral development
process of learning to tell the difference between right and wrong and of learning what ought and ought not to be done
Moral rules
specific prescriptions for actions
Morality
a doctrine or system denoting what is right and wrong in conduct, character, or attitude
Multidisciplinary care plan
a standardized plan that outlines the care required for clients with common, predictable--usually medical--conditions
Mutual pretense
a type of awareness in which the client, family, and health personnel know that the prognosis is terminal but do not talk about it and make an effort not to raise the subject
Myocardium
The second, thick, muscular layer of the heart, made up of bundles of cardiac muscle fibers reinforced by a branching network of connective tissue fibers called the fibrous skeleton of the heart.
Narrative charting
a descriptive record of client data and nursing interventions, written in sentences and paragraphs
Neutral question
a question that does not direct or pressure a client to answer in a certain way
nociceptors
The receptors that transmit pain sensation.
Nondirective interview
an interview using open-ended questions and empathetic responses to build rapport and learn client concerns
Nonmaleficence
the duty to do no harm
Nonverbal communication
communication other than words, including gestures, posture and facial expressions
Nursing diagnosis
the nurse's clinical judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual and potential health problems/life processes to provide the basis for selecting nursing interventions to achieve outcomes for which the nurse is accountable
Nursing interventions
any treatments, based upon clinical judgment and knowledge, that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcomes
Nursing orders
instructions written on the care plan to direct the specific nursing activities that help the client achieve desired outcomes/goals
Nursing process
a systematic rational method of planning and providing nursing care
Objective data
information (data) that is detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard; can be seen, heard, felt, or smelled
Open awareness
a type of awareness in which the client and people around know about the impending death
Open-ended questions
questions that specify only the broad topic to be discussed and invite clients to discover and explore their thoughts and feelings about the topic
Outcome evaluation
focuses on demonstrable changes in the client's health status as result of nursing care
overnutrition
Excesses in nutrient intake or stores.
oxygen saturation
The percentage of oxygen in the blood.
pain
A highly unpleasant sensation that affects a person’s physical health, emotional health, and well-being.
pain rating scale
Assessment of the intensity of pain through the use of pain rating scales, using a numerical rating of 0 to 5 or 0 to 10, with 0 indicating the absence of pain.
pain threshold
The amount of pain stimulation the person requires to feel pain.
pain tolerance
The maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure.
Palliative care
symptom care of clients for whom disease no longer responds to cure-focused treatment
palpation
The skill of assessing the client through the sense of touch to determine specific characteristics of the body.
paraphrasing
Restating the client’s basic message to test whether it was understood.
Passive euthanasia
allowing a person to die by withholding or withdrawing measures to maintain life
Patient
a person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care
Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA)
legislation requiring that every competent adult be informed in writing upon admission to a health care institution about his or her rights to accept or refuse medical care and to use advance directives
Patient-focused care
delivery model that brings all services and care providers to the client
Perceived loss
the loss experienced by a person that cannot be verified by others
percussion
"Striking through" a body part with an object, fingers, or reflex hammer, ultimately producing a measurable sound.
Pericardium
A thin sac composed of a fibroserous material that surrounds the heart.
peripheral vascular system
Blood vessels of the body that together with the heart and the lymphatic vessels make up the body’s circulatory system.
PES format
the three essential components of nursing diagnostic statements including the terms describing the problem, the etiology of the problem, and the defining characteristics or cluster of signs and symptoms
Physical restraints
any manual method or physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment attached to the client’s body that restrict the client’s movement
PIE
an acronym for a charting model that follows a recording sequence of problems, interventions, and evaluation of the effectiveness of the interventions
pleximeter
The device that accepts the tap or blow from a hammer.
plexor
A hammer or tapping finger used to strike an object.
positive regard
The ability to appreciate and respect another person’s worth and dignity with a nonjudgmental attitude.
Possible nursing diagnosis
one in which evidence about a health problem is incomplete or unclear
Postmortem examination
see Autopsy
Precontemplation stage
a person typically denies having a problem, views others as having a problem and therefore wants to change the other person’s behavior
Preparation stage
occurs when the person undertakes cognitive and behavioral activities that prepare the person for change
Primary prevention
activities directed toward the protection from or avoidance of potential health risks
primary sources
The client is the best source because he can describe personal symptoms, experiences, and factors leading to the current concerns.
Principles-based (deontological) theories
emphasize individual rights, duties, and obligations
Priority setting
the process of establishing a preferential order for nursing strategies
Problem solving
obtaining information that clarifies the nature of the problem and suggests possible solutions
Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)
data about the client are recorded and arranged according to the client's problems, rather than according to the source of the information
Problem-oriented record
(POR) see Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)
Process evaluation
a component of quality assurance that focuses on how care was given
Process recording
the verbatim (word-for-word) account of a conversation
Progress notes
chart entries made by a variety of methods and by all health professionals involved in a client's care for the purpose of describing a client's problems, treatments, and progress toward desired outcomes
Proxemics
the study of distance between people in their interactions
pulse
A high-pressure wave that causes the arteries to expand and contract.
Purkinje Fibers
Fibers that fan out and penetrate into the myocardial tissue to spread the current into the tissues themselves.
Qualifiers
words that have been added to some NANDA labels to give additional meaning to the diagnostic statement
Quality improvement
an organizational commitment and approach used to continuously improve all processes in the organization with the goal of meeting and exceeding customer expectations and outcomes; also known as total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvement (CQI)
Quality-assurance program
an ongoing systematic process designed to evaluate and promote excellence in the health care provided to clients
radiating pain
Pain perceived at the source of the pain and extends to nearby tissues.
rales/crackles
Discontinuous sounds which are intermittent, nonmusical, and brief.
Rapport
a relationship between two or more people of mutual trust and understanding
Rationale
the scientific reason for selecting a specific action
Raynaud's Disease
A condition in which the arterioles in the fingers develop spasms, causing intermittent skin pallor or cyanosis and then rubor (red color).
referred pain
Pain felt in a part of the body that is considerably removed from the tissues causing the pain.
reflecting
Letting the client know that the nurse empathizes with the thoughts, feelings, or experiences expressed.
Relationships-based (caring) theories
stress courage, generosity, commitment, and the need to nurture and maintain relationships
Remission
a period during a chronic illness when there is a lessening of severity or cessation of symptoms
resonance
The usual sound in the thorax, a long, low-pitched hollow sound.
respiratory rate
Counting the number of exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide (one inspiration and one expiration) per minute.
rhonchi
(Sonorous Wheezes) Sounds that are low-pitched with a snoring quality.
Right Atrium
A thin-walled chamber located above and slightly to the right of the right ventricle that forms the right border of the heart.
Right Ventricle
Part of heart formed triangularly and comprises much of the anterior or sternocostal surface of the heart.
Rigor mortis
the stiffening of the body that occurs after death
Risk factors
factors that cause a client to be vulnerable to developing a health problem
Risk nursing diagnosis
rules developed to govern the handling of frequently occurring situations
S1
The first heart sound (lub), is heard when the AV valves close. Closure of these valves occurs when ldrslt the ventricles have been filled.
S2
The second heart sound (dub), occurs when the aortic and pulmonic valves close, they close when the ventricles have emptied their blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Safety monitoring device
a position-sensitive switch that triggers an audio alarm when the client attempts to get out of the bed or chair
Screening examination (review of systems)
a brief review of essential functioning of various body parts or systems
Secondary prevention
activities designed for early diagnosis and treatment of disease or illness
secondary sources
A person or record that provides additional information about the client.
Seizure
a sudden onset of a convulsion or other paroxysmal motor or sensory activity
Seizure precautions
safety measures taken by the nurse to protect clients from injury should they have a seizure
Semilunar Valves
Valves that separate the ventricles from the vascular system.
Shroud
a large piece of plastic or cotton material used to enclose a body after death
Sinoatrial Node
The node located at the junction of the superior vena cava and right attrium that initiates the electrical impulse.
Socialization
a process by which a person learns the ways of a group or society in order to become a functioning participant
Source-oriented record
a record in which each person or department makes notations in a separate section or sections of the client’s chart
sphygmomanometer
A blood pressure cuff.
Standing order
a written document about policies, rules, regulations, or orders regarding client care; give nurses the authority to carry out specific actions under certain circumstances
Status epilepticus
continuous seizures
Sternum
The flat, narrow center bone of the upper anterior chest.
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood that is ejected with every heartbeat.
Structure evaluation
focuses on the setting in which care is given
Subjective data
data that are apparent only to the person affected; can be described or verified only by that person
summarizing
Tying together the various messages that the client has communicated throughout the interview.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
special payments for people with disabilities, those who are blind, people who are not eligible for Social Security; these payments are not restricted to health care costs
Syndrome diagnosis
a diagnosis that is associated with a cluster of other diagnoses
Systole
The phase of ventricular contraction in which the ventricles have been filled, then contract to expel blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Taxonomy
a classification system or set of categories, such as nursing diagnoses, arranged on the basis of a single principle or consistent set of principles
temperature
Core temperature, or the temperature of the deep tissues of the body, relatively constant at about 37ºC, or 98.6ºF.
Termination stage
the ultimate goal where the individual has complete confidence that the problem is no longer a temptation or threat
Tertiary prevention
activities designed to restore disabled individuals to their optimal level of functioning
Therapeutic communication
an interactive process between nurse and client that helps the client overcome temporary stress, to get along with other people, to adjust to the unalterable, and to overcome psychological blocks which stand in the way of self-realization
tracheal sounds
Harsh, high-pitched sounds heard over the trachea when the client inhales and exhales.
tympany
A loud, high-pitched, drumlike tone of medium duration characteristic of an organ that is filled with air.
Undertaker
see Mortician
Utilitarianism
a specific, consequence-based, ethical theory that judges as right the action that does the most good and least amount of harm for the greatest number of persons; often used in making decisions about the funding and delivery of health care
Utility
the principle of utilitarianism
Validation
the determination that the diagnosis accurately reflects the problem of the client, that the methods used for data gathering were appropriate, and that the conclusion or diagnosis is justified by the data
Value set
all the values (eg, personal, professional, religous) that a person holds
Variance
a variation or deviation from a critical pathway; goals not met or interventions not performed according to the time frame
varicosities
Distended veins that are dilated but have a diminished blood flow and an increased intravenous pressure.
veins
Parts of systemic circulation that deliver deoxygenated blood from the body periphery back to the heart.
venous insufficiency
Inadequate circulation in the venous system usually due to incompetent valves in deep veins or a blood clot in the veins.
Veracity
a moral principle that holds that one should tell the truth and not lie
vesicular sounds
Sounds are soft and low-pitched and heard over the remainder of the lungs, longer on inhalation than exhalation.
Visceral Layer
The inner layer, which lines the surface of the heart.
visceral pain
Pain results from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax, appears diffuse and often has feeling of pressure, burning, or aching.
vital signs
Measurement of body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and sometimes oxygen saturation to obtain baseline data, to detect or monitor a change in the client’s health status, and to monitor clients at risk for alterations in health.
Well-being
a subjective perception of balance, harmony, and vitality
Wellness
a state of well-being; engaging in attitudes and behaviors that enhance quality of life and maximize personal potential
Wellness diagnosis
(NANDA) describes human responses to levels of wellness in an individual, family, or community that have a readiness for enhancement
wheezes
(Sibilant) Sounds that are high-pitched with a shrill quality.
whispered pectoriloquy
Auscultation of voice sounds, patient whispers "one, two, three", normal lung sounds will be faint, almost indistinquishable.
Xanthelasma
Yellowish cholesterol deposits seen on the eyelids and are indicative of premature atherosclerosis.