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124 Cards in this Set

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CNS Depressants
Types of Meds
Sedative-Hypnotics
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Anethetics
Downers
CNS Depressants
Nursing Actions
Safety Messures
Assess respirations
Evaluate for constipation
Instruct no Alcohol or other CNS depressants
CNS Stimulants
Medically approved uses
ADHD
Narcolepsy
Obesity
Reversal of respiratory distress
CNS Stimulants
Types of Meds
Amphetamines
Amphetamine-like
Anorexiants
Respiratory stimulants
Uppers
CNS Stimulants
Amphetamines
Medication & Nursing Action
Adderall (amphetamine)
NA: assess HR; do not give near HS
CNS Stimulants
Amphetimine-like
Med & Nursing Action
Ritalin (methylphenidate)
NA: evaluate growthof children; evaluate CBC; do not give near HS
CNS Stimulants
Anorexiants: Obesity
Med & Nursing Action
Fastin
NA: evaluate weight lose; do not give under age 12; assess for heart palpitations and hypertension
CNS Stimulants
Respiratory
Med & Nursing Action
Dopram (doxapram)
NA: assess respirations; assess for nervousness
CNS Stimulants
Headaches: Migraine & Cluster
Preventive Med & Nursing Action
Beta-adrenergic blockers
Inderal (propranolol)
NA: assess apical HR do not give if less than 60 BPM
CNS Stimulants
Headaches: Migraine & Cluster
Treatment Med & Nursing Action
Selective serotonin1 receptor agonists (triptans)
Imitrex (sumatriptan)
NA: do not give if CAD or hypertension
Neuro disorders
Parkinson Med Types
Anticholinergics
Dopaminergics
Dopamine agonists
Neuro disorders
Parkinson Med & Nursing Act.
Anticholinergics
Cogentin (bentropine)
NA: assess VS; assess for constipation and urinary rentention
Neuro disorders
Parkinson Med & Nursing Act.
Dopaminergics
Sinemet (carbidoplevodopa)
NA: assess for agranulocytosis (decreased WBC); give w/ food; instruct change positions slowly; advise must be taken 3-4 times daily
Neuro disorders
Alzheimers Med & Nursing Act.
Cholinergic meds
(parasympathominetics)
Cognex (tacrine)
NA: assess for bradycardia; give w/ food; instruct change positions slowly
Vaccines
Types of immunity (Define)
Active
Passive
A: person exposed to antigens & antibodies develop
P: person given antibodies
Vaccines
Med & Nursing Action
Vaccine Varicells
NA: instruct that pain, redness may occur at site as well as fever; give Tylenol appr. for age; give injection in vastus lateralis
Vaccines
Types of Immunizations:
Child
Adult
Before Travel
C: CDC recommendation
A: flu, pneumonis, Hep A&B, MMR & chicken pox
Travel: depends on country visited
Non-Narcotic Analgesics
Types
NSAIDs (salicylates)
Actaminophen
Narcotic Agonist Analgesics
Opioid
Synthetic Narcs
Med & Nursing Actions
O: Morphine & Codeine
SN: Demerol (meperidine)& Dilaudid (hydromorphone)
NA: assess respirations; safety measures; instruct change position slowly; prevent constipation; assess habituation
Narcotic Agonist-Antagonists
Mixed Action Meds
Med & Nursing Action
Nubain (nalbuphine HCI)
NA: do not give w/ narc agonists (will negate their effect); safety measures; assess respirations; prevent constipation; assess habituation
Narcotic Antagonists
Reverse action of Narcs
Med
Narcan
Anticonvulsants
Med & Nursing Actions
Dilantin (phenytoin)
NA: safety measures; need to assess therapeutic serum levels; oral care due to gingival hyperplasia
Antidepressants
Types
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Innhibitors (SSRIS)
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitores (MAOIs)
Antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Med & Nursing Actions
Elavil (amitriptyline)
NA: safety measures; instruct change position slowly; increase fluids
Antidepressants
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Innhibitors (SSRIS)
Med & Nursing Actions
Prozac (fluoxetine)
NA: baseline ECG, instruct NO alcohol
Antidepressants
Bipolar Disorder
Med & Nursing Actions
Lithane (lithium)
NA: assess serum levels; increase sodium intake; increase fluids
Antidiabetic Meds
Insulin
Types & onset time
Rapid-acting:15 min
Short-acting:30 min
Intermediate-acting:1-2 hours
Long-acting:steady release over 24 hours, give at HS
Antidiabetic Meds
Insulin
Types & Meds
RA: Humolog (lispro insulin)
SA: Humulin R (regular insulin)
IA: Humulin N (NPH insulin)
LA: Lantus (insulin glargine)
Antidiabetic Meds
Insulin
Nursing Actions
NA: assess blood glucose before giving Med; assess for S/S hypoglycemia; know when action begins (food available); rotate sites
Antidiabetic Meds
Sliding Scale Insulin & Glucose Formula
SSI: amopunt of lispro or regular insulin given according to bloog glucose
GF:Blood Glucose subtract 100, then divide by 30 equals amount of insulin to be given
Antidiabetic Meds
Oral Med Types
Sulfonylureas
Biguanides
Thiazolidinediones
Antidiabetic Meds
Sulfonylureas
Med & Nursing Action
Glucotrol (glipizide)
NA: assess for sulfa allergy; assess blood glucose; assess for S/S hypoglycemia
Antidiabetic Meds
Biguanides
Med & Nursing Action
Glucophage (metformin)
NA: give w/ meals; assess for GI flatulence; may cause hypoglycemia if given w/ other agents
Antidiabetic Meds
Thiazolidinediones
Med & Nursing Action
Actos (pioglitazone)
NA: assess liver function testes; may cause hypoglycemia if given w/ other agents
Antineoplastic Meds
Define Cell-Cycle Specific & Nonspecific Meds
CCS: action is specific to certain phase of the cell cycle
CCNS: action is across cell cycle, does not occur at any specific phase
Antineoplastic Meds
Principles of Combination Chemotherapy
Decreases drug resistance
Enhances effects on cancer
Reduces drug toxicity
Antineoplastic Meds
Types of Meds
Alkylating Agents
Antimetabolites
Antitumor Antibiotics
Mitotic Inhibitors
Hormonal
Immunotherapy
Antineoplastic Meds
Nursing Actions
Protect from infection R/T depressed bone marrow (WBCs)
Protect from bledding R/T depressed bone marrow (platelets)
Administer antiemetics R/T nausea, vomiting & anorexia
Provide soft, bland foods R/T stomatitis
Increase fluids to prevent constipation
Psychological support R/T alopecia & scarring
Antiinflammatory Meds
Types
NSAIDs
Corticosteroids
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
Anti-gout Meds
Antiinflammatory Meds
Salicylates
Med & Nursing Actions
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA])
NA: give w/ food; assess for bleeding
Antiinflammatory Meds
Propionic Acid Derivatives
Med & Nursing Actions
Motrin (ibuprofen)
NA: give w/ food; assess for bleeding
Antiinflammatory Meds
COX-2 Inhibitors
Med & Nursing Actions
Celebrex (celecoxib)
NA: give w/ food; assess for bleeding
Antiinflammatory Meds
Diease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Ridarura (auranofin) (gold)
DA: modify effect of disease
NA: assess urine for protine (nephrotoxicity); assess for blood dyscrasias (agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia)
Antiinflammatory Meds
Anti-gout Meds
Meds, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Novocolchine (colchicine)
DA: Stops inflammatory response
Zyloprim (allopurinol)
DA: Uric acid inhibitor
NA: instruct to avoid alcohol, caffeine & thiazide diuretics that increase uric acid level
Antiinflammatory Meds
Glucocorticoids (steroids)
Med & Nursing Actions
Prednisone (glucocorticoid)
NA: give w/ food; assess for infection
Urinary Tract Meds
Common Med groups to treat UTIs & Nursing Actiona
Bactrim (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Urinary antiinfective - Macrodantin (nitrofurantoin)
NA: advise may caiuse urine to be red/brown, stain clothes; give w/ food
Fluoroquinolones - Levaquin (levofloxacin)
Urinary Tract Meds
Urinary Analgesics
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Pyridium (phenazopyridine)
DA: relieve pain, burning sensation and frequency and urgency of urination
NA: advise urine will be a harmless reddish orange, may stain clothes; give w/ food; increase fluids
Urinary Tract Meds
Urinary Stimulants
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Urecholine (bethanechol)
DA: parasympathomimetic (copy parasympathic NS)
NA: assess for decreased HR & BP
Urinary Tract Meds
Urinary Antispasmodics
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Ditropan (oxbutynin)
DA: decrease bladder spasms
NA: increase fluids, cause dry mouth; do not give if patient has narrow-angle glaucoma
Urinary Tract Meds
Urinary Antimuscarinics
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Detrol (tolterodinetartrate)
DA: control overactive bladder
NA: give w/ food; increase fluids; do not give if patient has narrow-angle glaucoma
Antiinfectives
Nursing Actions for all antibiotics
NA: assess for allergies; evaluate for superinfections; give w/ food if causes GI distress; do culture before starting antibiotics
Antiinfectives
Sulfonamides
MED & Extra Nursing Actions
Bactrim (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
ExNA: increase fluids; do not give if pt. is allergic to sulfa
Antiinfectives
Penicillins
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Amoxil (amoxicillian)
Augmentin (amoxicillian-clavulanic acid)
ExNA: instruct pt. to eat yogurt to help w/ GI distress
Antiinfectives
Cephalosporins
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Celcor
ExNA: give w/ caution if allergic to penicillin
Antiinfectives
Macrolides
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
E-mycin (erthromycin)
ExNa: assess for diarrhea (pseudomembranous colitis)
Antiinfectives
Tetracyclines
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Achromycin (tetracycline)
ExNA: do not give w/ milk/ dairy product or antacids; do not give to pregnent women; should not be give to children younger than 8 years old
Antiinfectives
Aminoglycosides
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Garamycin (gentamicin sulfate)
ExNA: assess hearing (causes ototoxicity)
Antiinfectives
Fluroquinolones (Quinolones)
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Levaquin (levofloxacin)
ExNA: increase fluids
Antitubercular Meds
First-line meds
Meds usually given in combos of 2-3.
Isoniazid, rifampin, rifabutin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin
Antitubercular Meds
Med & Nursing Actions
INH (isoniazid)
assess peripheral neuropathy (instruct to take Vit. B6 pyridoxine as perscribed) and hepatotoxicity (evaluate liver enzymes)
Antiinfectives
Metronidazole
Meds & Extra Nursing Actions
Flagyl (metronidazole)
ExNA: instruct NO alcohol; instruct on importance of taking all medication
Antifungals
Polyenes
Med & Nursing Actions
Nystatin (mycostatin)
NA: swisha and swallow; apply to affected area
Antifungals
Azoles
Med & Nursing Actions
Diflucan (fluconazole)
NA: take w/ food; taken w/ sulfonylureas may cause hypoglycemia; instruct may take 3 days to see full effect
Respiratory Meds
Antihistamines
H1 Blockers (antagonists)
1st Gen antihistamines
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Benedryl (diphenhydramine)
DA: Sedating
NA: safety measures; increase fluids
Respiratory Meds
Antihistamines
H1 Blockers (antagonists)
2nd Gen antihistamines
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Claritin (loratadine)
DA: Non-sedating
NA: assess S/S allergies
Respiratory Meds
Nasal Decongestants
Med & Nursing Actions
Afrin (pseudoephedrine)
NA: instruct only use 3 days (causes rebound congestion)
Respiratory Meds
Systemic Decongestants
Med & Nursing Actions
Sudafed (pseudoephedrine)
NA: do not give if hypertension
Respiratory Meds
Intranasal Glucocorticoids
Med & Nursing Actions
Beclomethasone, fluticasone (Flonase), triamcinolone (Nasacort)
NA: instruct to use as directed; direct spray away from septum
Respiratory Meds
Antitussives
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Robitussin DM (dextromethorphan)
w/ Narc products (codeine)
NA: increase fluids; safety measures
Respiratory Meds
Expectorants
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Humibid (guaifenesin)
DA: loosens bronchial secretions
NA: increase fluids
Respiratory Meds
Bronchial Asthma Acute Attack
Sympathomimetics, 1st line of defense
Med & Nursing Actions
Epinephrine (adrenaline), for emergency
NA: assess RR; assess HR
Respiratory Meds
Bronchial Asthma Maintenance
Nonselective adrenergic agonist (affects both heart & lungs)
Med & Nursing Actions
Isuprel (isoprotereno)
NA: assess for increased HR; evaluate breath sounds
Respiratory Meds
Bronchial Asthma Maintenance
Selective beta-adrenergic agonist (little affect on heart)
Med & Nursing Actions
Alupent (metaprotereno)
NA: assess breath sounds
Respiratory Meds
Anticholinergics
Meds & Nursing Actions
Atrovent (ipratroplum bromide) - aerosol inhaler
NA: assess breath sounds
Theodur (theophylline) - PO
NA: assess heart sounds; assess breath sounds
Respiratory Meds
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists/Inhibitors
Med & Drug Action
Accolate (zanfirlukast)
DA: reduce inflammatory process and decrease bronchoconstriction
Respiratory Meds
Glucocorticoids (steroids)
Meds & Drug Actions
Aerosol inhaler: (beclomethasone)
PO: (prednisone)
Injection: Decadron (dexamethasone)
Respiratory Meds
Mucolytics
Med, Drug Action & Misc info
Mucomyst (acetylcysteine)
DA: liquefies & loosens thick mucus secretions
Misc: also used as an antidote for acetaminophen OD
GI Tract Meds
GI Disorders
nausea/vomiting; diarrhea; constipation; gastric ulcer; H. pylori, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
GI Tract Meds
Prescription Antiemetics
Prescriptive antihistamines
Anticholinergics
Dopamine antagonists
(phenothiazines), (butyrophenones), (metoclopramide)
GI Tract Meds
Phenothiazines
Med & Nursing Actions
Phenergan (promethiazine)
NA: safety measures; increase fluids as tolerated
GI Tract Meds
GI Motility Med
Med & Nursing Actions
Reglan (metoclopramide)
NA: safety measures
GI Tract Meds
Antidiarrheals
Types
Opiates & opiate related agents
Diphenoxylate w/ atropine
Somatostatin analog, octreotide (Sandostatin) for severe diarrhea
Absorbents: Kaopectate
GI Tract Meds
Opoid Antidiarrheals
Med & Nursing Actions
Lomotil (diphenoxylate w/ atropine)
NA: safety measures; increase fluids as tolerated
GI Tract Meds
Constipation
Types of laxitives
Osmotic (saline)
Stimulant (contact)
Bulk-forming
Emollient (stool softeners)
GI Tract Meds
Osmotic Laxative
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Fleets (phosphosoda)
DA: draws fluid into bowel
NA: do not give if HF. hypertension, edema; give in am; assess bowel sounds; increase fluids; assess bowel movement
GI Tract Meds
Stimulant Laxative
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Ducolax (bisacodyl)
DA: Irritates GI mucosa & increases peristalsis
NA: assess bowel sounds; give in AM; increase fluids; assess bowel movement
GI Tract Meds
Bulk Laxative
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Metamucil (psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid)
DA: increase fiber which holds fluid and bulk increases peristalsis
NA: increase fluids (instruct bowel obstruction w/o sufficient anount of water); assess bowel sounds; give in AM; assess bowel movement
GI Tract Meds
Non-Systemic Antacids
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Amphojel (aluminum hydroxide)
DA: buffer gastric acid
NA: give other meds 1 hour before or 2 hours after to prevent decreased absorption; increase fluids, fiber & exercise (may cause constipation)
GI Tract Meds
H2 Blockers
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Zantac (ranitidine)
DA: decrease production of gastric acid
NA: safety measures (may cause drowsiness)
GI Tract Meds
Proton Pump inhibitors (PPIs)
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Prevacid (iansoprazole)
DA: decrease production of gastric acid
NA: assess fo S/S of disease (GERD, ulcer)
GI Tract Meds
Pepsin Inhibitor
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Carafate (sucralfate)
DA: forms barrier on gastric mucosa
NA: give other meds 1 hous before or 2 hours after to prevent decreased absorption of other meds
GI Tract Meds
Prostaglandin Analog
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Actions
Cytotec (misoprostol)
DA: used w/ NSAIDs; protect mucosal lining of stomach
NA: DO NOT give if pt. is pregnant
Diuretics
Potassium-wasting
Thiazide & Thiazide-like
Esidrex (hydrochlorathiazide, HCTZ)
NA: give in AM; assess edema & BP; assess for hypokalemia; give w/ foods rich in potassium (citrus jucie or bananas)
Diuretics
Potassium-wasting
Loop
Med & Nursing Actions
Lasix (furosemide)
NA: give in AM; assess for edema; assess for hypokalemia; give w/ foods rich in potassium (citrus jucie or bananas)
Diuretics
Potassium-sparing
Med & Nursing Actions
Aldactone (spirolactone)
NA: assess S/S hyperkalemia' monitor serum potassium levels; instruct not to use salt substitutes
Cardiac Meds
Types of Antihypertensives
Diuretics (thiazides & loop diuretics; Combos of HCTZ & potassium-sparing diuretics & other antihypertensive meds; Sympatholytics - adrenergic blockers; ACE inhibitors; Calcium channel blockers; ARBs
Cardiac Meds
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers (Olols)
Med, Contraindications & Nursing Actions
Noncardio selective (affect heart & lings)
Inderal (metoprolol)
C: smokers, respiratory problems
NA: assess apical HR; assesss BP; instruct change position slowly; do not stop taking suddenly; notify Dr. of sexual dysfunction
Cardiac Meds
Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers
Med & Nursing Action
Minipress (prazosin HCL)
NA: safety measures (may cause dizziness); instruct change positions slowly; assess apical HR & BP
Cardiac Meds
Calcium Channel Blockers
Med, Drug Action & Nursing Action
Norvasc (amlodipine)
DA: vasodilation by decrease calcium levels; may cause peripheral edema
NA: instruct to avoid ingestion of grapefruit juice (intensify med's effect); instruct change positions slowly; assess apical HR & BP
Cardiac Meds
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (Prils)
Med & Nursing Action
Capoten (captopril)
NA: instruct to notify Dr. of irritating cough; assess apical HR & BP; instruct change positions slowly
Cardiac Meds
Angiotensin 2 Receptor Antagonists/Blockers (ARBs)(sartans)
Med & Nursing Action
Cozaar (losartan)
NA: safety measures (may cause dizziness); instruct change position slowly; assess apical HR & BP
Cardiac Meds
Glycosides
Med & Nursing Action
Lanoxin (digoxin)
NA: assess apical HR full minute, hold & notify Dr. if less than 60 BPM; assess for hypokalemic especially if given w/ Lasix
Cardiac Meds
Antianginals - Nitrates
Med & Nursing Action
Nitrostat (nitroglycerin)
NA: instruct may cause headache; safety measures (may cause hypotension, dizziness, reflex tachycardia)
Cardiac Meds
Types of Antidysrhythmics
Med & Nursing Action
Class 1: fast (sodium) channel blockers
Class 2: Beta-adrenergic blockers
Class 3: prolon re-polarization
Class 4: Calcium channel blockers
Cardiac Meds
Anticoagulants- Heparin IV/IM
Med & Nursing Action
Lipo-Heparin (heparin sodium)may give IV
Lovenox (enoxaparin)
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)
NA: give subq abdomen, no aspirate, no massage; assess for bleeding; antidote is protamine sulfate; assess PTT
Cardiac Meds
Anticoagulants - PO
Med & Nursing Action
Coumadin (warfarin)
NA: assess bleeding; diet must be consistent as to Vit. K (antidote); assess INR (protime)
Cardiac Meds
Antiplatelets
Med & Nursing Action
Plavix (clopidogrel)
NA: assess for bleeding
Cardiac Meds
Thrombolytics
Med & Nursing Action
Alteplase (tPA)
NA: assess for allergic reaction; assess ECG; no asprin or NSAIDs
Cardiac Meds
Types of Antilipidemics
Med & Nursing Action
Resin antilipidemics
Nicotinic acid
Statins/vastatins
Cardiac Meds
Antilipidemics - Statins/vastatins
Med & Nursing Action
Mevacor (lovastatin)
NA: monitor liver enzymes; report unexplained muscle tenderness or weakness, fever & malaise
Cardiac Meds
Peripheral Vasodilators
Med & Nursing Action
Vasodilan (isoxsuprine)
NA: instruct change positons slowly; safety measures (dizziness)
Antiviral
Flu
Med, Use & Nursing Actions
Symmetrel (amantadine HCI)
U: treatment for Influenza A
NA: instruct will not prevent flu, only decrease symptoms
Antiviral
Neuraminidase Inhibitors
Med, Use & Nursing Actions
Tamiflu
U: treatment for Influenza A&B (effective if taken w/in 48 hours of flu symptoms)
NA: instruct to seek medical care w/in 48 hr
Antiviral
Purine Nucleosides
Med, Use & Nursing Actions
Zovirax (acyclovir)
U: treatment of herpes simplex 1, herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes simplex 2
NA: give w/ food to prevent GI upset
Antiviral
HIV
Therapy & Goals
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
Goals: Decrease viral load; Preserve/increase number of CD4+T cells; Prevent resistance; Have pt. in good clinical condition; Prevent secondary infections & cancers
Antiviral
Antiretroviral Agent
Meds given in combos
Reverse transcrpitive inhibitors (nucleoside analgues & nonnucleoside analogues)
Protease inhibitors
Fusion inhibitors
Antiretroviral
Nucleoside analogues
Med & Nursing Actions
AZT (zodovudine)
NA: report numbness lower extremities
Anthelmintic Meds
Med & Nursing Actions
Vermox (mebendazole)
NA: given w/ food
Neuromuscular Disorders
Myastenia Gravis (MG)
Cholinesterase inhibitors or acetylchinesterase (AChE) inhibitors
Med & Nursing Actions
Mestinon (pyridostigmine bromide)
NA: observe for OD; available antidote (atropine sulfate); may take w/ food if GI distress
Neuromuscular Disorders
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Meds
Glucocorticiod (prednisone)
Immunosuppresents
Biological response modifiers
Neuromuscular Disorders
Muscle Relaxants
Med & Nursing Actions
Soma (carisoprodol)
NA: safety measures; increase fluids; do not stop abruptly; take w/ food
Antipsychotics
Phenothiazines
Med & Nursing Actions
Prolixin (fluphenazine)
NA: safety measures; increase fluids; assess for urinary retention, constipation; instruct about photosensitivity (avoid sunlight); assess for symptoms of tremors, gait change
Antipsychotics
Non-phenothiazines
Med & Nursing Actions
Haldol (haloperidol)
NA: safety measures; increase fluids; assess for urinary retention, constipation; instruct about photosensitivity (avoid sunlight); assess for symptoms of tremors, gait change
Anxiolytics
Benzodiazepines
Med & Nursing Actions
Ativan (lorazepam)
NA: safety measures; assess for habituation