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51 Cards in this Set

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What is a fallacy in reasoning?
Faulty reasoning either accidental or intentional and do not allow for a well-reasoned decision
What are 9 standards for assessing ethical reasoning?
clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, and fairness.
What is clarity, its fallacy?
def: meaning is easily understandable
fallacy: word ambiguity- word used in an unclear manner
What is Accuracy and its fallacies?
def: no errors or distortions
fallacies: euphemisms, prejudicial language, appeal to fear, appeal to pitty.
What is the fallacy euphemism and give an example of it?
def: words which minimize probable negative connotations
eg. anything politically correct (domestic engineer for a house wife)
What is the fallacy prejudicial langauge and give and example of it?
def: words which carry a persuasive emotional power.
eg. terrorist, noncomliant, any slur against a group
What is the fallacy appeal to fear and give an example of it?
Def: use of something threatening to persuade an agreement
eg. or else statements, using threats
What is the fallacy appeal to pity and give an example of it?
an attempt to persuade you by making you feel sorry.
eg. someone complaining about how miserable they are and no one loves them even though they are just fine.
What is precision and what are its fallacies?
def: exact to the necessary detail
fallacies: hasty generalization, questionable statistic
What is the fallacy hasty generalization and give an example of it?
a conclusion reached w/o sufficient data
eg. "all nurses steal meds" , judging a book by its cover.
What is the fallacy questionable statistic and give an example?
def: use of number which are stated without a source or margin of error.
eg. distorted statistics, "9 of 10 dentists approve...." "lose weight like these women with these pills...."
What is relevance and what is its fallacy? give def and example.
relating to the matter at hand so that it helps with the issue.
fallacy: red herring- a distracting statemnent which diverts attention from the issue
eg. politics, kid saying "she did it" to divert parents attention from wrong they actually did
What is depth and what is its fallacy? Give def and example.
def: examines the comlexities of the issue.
fallacy: slothful induction- refusal to enter into examining an issue at all.
eg. "don't confuse me with the facts." "I don't vote because I don't want to get involved."
What is breadth and what is its fallacy? Give def and example.
objectively looks at multiple viewpoints
fallacy: either-or- assumes that there are only two solutions to a problem.
eg. "I have to vote either democrate or republican."
What is logic and its fallacies?
def: the conclusions flow from the evidence; no contradictions
fallacies: pointing to another wrong, inconsistencies and contradictions, false analogy, false cause, slippery slope, is-ought
What is the fallacy pointing to another wrong and give an example?
def: two wrongs make a right
eg. eye for an eye "he hurt me so I'll hurt him back." "she cheated on me so I will cheat on her"
What is the fallacy inconsistencies and contradictions and give an example?
def: statements which are directly counter to one another or which don't add up.
eg. after drinking a fifth, "no officer, I am not drunk."
What is the fallacy false analogy and give an example?
def: the comparison does not portray the things being compared accurately.
eg. comparing apples to oranges
What is the fallacy false cause and give an example?
attributing causation simply because something preceded the event or blaming someone unrelated.
eg. athletes lucky socks, getting sick and blamming the hamburger you just ate.
What is the fallacy slippery slope and give an example?
def: believing that one event will cause an inevitable chain reaction.
eg. "if I use deoderant I will get alzhimers" "if I do bad on this test I will flunk out of school."
What is the fallacy is-ought and give an example?
def: because something is possible we must do it.
eg. "we have life support, so we must use it."
What is significance and what is its fallacy? Give the def and example.
def: looking at the most important or central facts and issues
fallacy: appeal to false authority- involves pressure to trust "experts", the majority or tradition.
eg. do it because "they" say so, "my friends are doing it so so should I"
What is fairness and what are its fallacies?
def: not self-serving or "spinning" the facts or the issue.
fallacies: appeal to prejudice (personal attack & poisoning the well), loaded question
what is the fallacy appeal to prejudice?
def: an attitude of rejection based on fear, envy, and resentment.
eg. personal attack- outright name calling
poisioning the well-an idea or cause is discredited from the begining so that no one wants to hear any more.
What is the fallacy load question and give and example?
def: a slanted question which implies wrong doing no matter what answer is given
eg. "Are you still beating your wife?"
What is autonomy?
pts right to make their own decisions w/o coercion; based on respect for the individual; individual needs to have mental, emotional and legal capacity to make decisions
What is Beneficence?
actively doing good for your patient-avocacy, nursing interventions, observing 5 rights of med pass, etc.
What is non-maleficence?
preventing, or avoiding, doing harm. Duty to do no harm.
What is Fidelity?
Promise keeping. Promise to give care, faithfulness, includes pt confidentiality
What is justice?
to treat all patients fairly w/o regard to their age, status, disease process, sex, or any other attributes
What is veracity?
Truth telling. eg. med errors
What are 6 main ethical principles which guide nursing practice?
autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, fidelity, justice, veracity
What is a value?
a belief about the worth of something, about what matters, that acts as a standard to guide one's behavior
What is a value system?
an organization of values in which each is ranked along a continuum of importance, often leading to a personal code of conduct.
What is ethics?
a systematic inquiry into principles of right and wrong conduct, of virtue and vice, and of good and evil as they relate to conduct.
What are morals?
refers to personal or communal standards of right and wrong.
How is morals different from ethics?
ethics are an action, morals are our personal beliefs based on teaching and guidelines as we grew up; may overlap
What is the law and how is it different from ethics?
law: public policy; minimal enforcement that everyone has to abide by
where ethics hold people to different (more strict) standards. Something may be against the law but ethical and vice versa.
What is spirituality and how does it differ from ethics?
spirituality: belief system; internal, personal beliefs about nature and universe where ethics is cognitive systematic approach to judging situations
When did Utilitarianism start and who started it?
1700's, David Hume
What is utilitarianism?
what is good is happiness or pleasure; belief that it is right to maximize the greatest good for the happiness or well-being of the greatest number of people
What are the advantages to utilitarianism?
easy to apply to many situations, almost any decision can be based on this principle
What are the disadvantages of utilitarianism?
"even if it makes me happy is it the best thing?" Things that make us happy may not be the best for others, individuals rights may be lost. What is good? may have arbitrary idea of what is good. "end justifies means" -is action still good if others are harmed in the course?
What is distributive justice?
an ethical principle which advocates equal allocation of benefits and burdens to all members of society.
What is Deontology?
a system of ethical decision making based on moral rules and unchanging principles aka "duty based ethics"
When was deontology started and who started it?
1700's, Immanual Kant
What do strict believers of deontology believe?
absoluteness of the ethical principles regardless of the consequences or decisions made. eg. defending your children against an attacker. deontologists would not defend because though shall not harm/kill.
Deontology is based on categorical imperative, what is this?
belief that it is not the result of the act which makes it right or wrong, but the principles upon which the act is based.
What are some advantages to deontology?
ethical judgements based on principles will result in a similar decision despite the people or location involved. similar to legal system-what is right and what is wrong.
What are some disadvantages to deontology?
very black and white not taking the grey into account. situational components- stuck in past, unchanging. Can't make exceptions, results don't matter.
What are pluralistic ethics?
modern day bioethics; combo of deontology and utilitarianism and includes "ethic of caring." aka: "virtue ethics"