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89 Cards in this Set

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THE PRESSURE WITHIN THE PLEURAL SPACE IS GREATER THAN OR LESS THAN THE OUTSIDE AIR?
LESS THAN( WHICH CREATES SUCTION PREVENTING THE LUNGS FROM COLLAPSING)
BRONCHIAL CIRCULATION TERMINATES WHEN?
WHEN VENOUS BLOOD ENTERS PULMONARY VEINS
THE ROUTE THAT BLOOD CIRCULATES THROUGH THE ALVEOLI IS CALLED?
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
CONDUCTING AIRWAYS ARE LINED WITH ___TISSUE, MUCUS-SECRETING___CELLS, AND HAIR LIKE PROJECTIONS CALLED___?
EPITHELIAL,
GOBLET,
CILIA
THE ___CONNECTS THE MOUTH AND NASAL PASSAGES TO THE LOWER PART OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT?
PHARYNX
THE TRACHEA HAS C-SHAPED CARTILAGINOUS RINGS AND EXTENDS DOWN INTO THE ___?
BRONCHI
WHAT IS ANOTHER NAME FOR THE UPPERMOST THYROID CARTILAGE?
ADAM'S APPLE
THE THYROID AND CRICOID CARTILAGE, GLOTTIS, AND EPIGLOTTIS ARE WITHIN WHAT CAVITY?
LARYNX
WITHIN THE ALVEOLAR DUCTS ARE THE ___ WHICH WORK TO REMOVE FOREIGN PARTICLES?
ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES
THIS TERM REFERS TO THE EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN THE AIR IN THE ALVEOLI AND THE BLOOD IN THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES?
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
THIS TERM REFERS TO THE EXCHANGE OF GASES AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL?
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL OF REPIRATION IS REGULATED BY THE ___AND ___ PORTIONS OF THE BRAIN?
PONS AND MEDULLA
WHAT DO THE CHEMORECEPTORS FOR RESPIRATION MONITOR?
C02, O2, AND PH
CHEMORECEPTORS INITIATE RESPIRATION IN RESPONSE TO RISING LEVELS OF ___IN THE BLOOD?
CARBON DIOXIDE
DURING VENTILATION THE DIAPHRAGM___ AND ___ IN RESPONSE TO STIMULI FROM THE RESPIRATORY CENTER?
CONTRACTS AND FLATTENS OUT
THE INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES CONTRACT DURING VENTILATION TO ___ THE RIBS AND ___ THE DIAMETER OF THE THORACIC CAVITY?
ELEVATE
INCREASE
AS THE AREA OF THE THORACIC SPACE INCREASES, PRESSURE WITHIN THE CAVITY ___, TO BECOME___ IN RELATION TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE OUTSIDE THE LUNGS?
DECREASES,
NEGATIVE
ONCE OXYGEN DIFFUSES ACROSS THE MEMBRANE FROM THE ALVEOLI TO ALVEOLAR CAPILLARY NETWORK AND HEMOGLOBIN, WHAT % IS LEFT TO DISSOLVE INTO PLASMA?
1-3%
WHAT IS THE NORMAL BREATHRATE FOR ADULTS?
12-20
WHAT IS THE NORMAL BREATHRATE FOR INFANTS?
30-60
WHAT IS THE NORMAL BREATHRATE FOR CHILDREN?
18-26
DO LARGER NEWBORNS BREATHE SLOWER OR FASTER THAN SMALLER ONES?
SLOWER
WHO BREATHES MORE DIAPHRAGMATICLY MEN OR WOMEN?
MEN
WHAT WOULD BE CONSIDERED A NORMAL PERIOD OF APNEA FOR A NEWBORN?
<20 SECONDS
WHAT IS THE % RATE OF SMOKERS WHO START THE HABIT IN ADOLESCENCE?
90%
BY WHAT % DOES NORMAL PAO2 DECREASE IN THE OLDER ADULT?
10-15 %
IF A PERSON HYPERVENTILATES WHAT TYPE OF ACID-BASE IMBALANCE DOES HE HAVE?
RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
WHAT IS THE % O2 IN ROOM AIR?
21%
DEFINE THE TERM "PARTIAL PRESSURE"?
THE PRESSURE OF A SPECIFIC GAS IN A MIXTURE
WHAT IS THE DEFINITIVE DIAGNOSES FOR HYPOXEMIA?
ABG OR PULSE OXYMETRY
DURING RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IS CENTRAL OR PERPHERAL CYANOSIS MORE COMMONLY SEEN?
CENTRAL
WHAT RR WOULD DEFINE HYPOVENTILATION ?
<10
WHAT PACO2 IS EXPECTED WITH HYPOVENTILATION?
>45MMHG
___DEFICIT AND ___RETENTION ARE CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOVENTILATION?
O2,
CO2
WHAT IS THE RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO HYPERCAPNIA? AND WHY?
INCREASED RESPIRATORY RATE SECONDARY TO THE BODY SENSING THE NEED TO GET RID OF CO2
WHEN IT COMES TO ACID AND BASE WHAT PH IS CONSIDERED NEUTRAL?
7.0
WHAT ARE THE 3 MECHANISMS BY WHICH THE BODY MAINTAINS HOMEOSTASIS OF HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION?
BUFFER SYSTEMS, EXHALATION OF CO2, AND KIDNEY EXCRETION
WHICH HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISM FOR HYDROGEN BALANCE IS THE FASTEST AND WHICH IS THE SLOWEST?
BUFFERS ARE THE FASTEST AND KIDNEYS ARE THE SLOWEST
WHAT PACO2 VALUE CONSTITUTES HYPERVENTILATION?
< 35 MMHG
WHAT MECHANISM WOULD BE TRIGGERED IF A METABOLIC DISEASE SUCH AS RENAL FAILURE CAUSED ACIDOSIS?
HYPERVENTILATION
WHAT RESPIRATORY PATTERN WOULD OD ON ASA PRODUCE?
HYPERVENTILATION TO GET RID OF THE ACID
TRUE OR FALSE--CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING ONLY OCCURS FROM INHALING LARGE AMOUNTS OF CO?
FALSE--THERE CAN BE A CUMULATIVE EFFECT AS WELL
HOW MANY TIMES GREATER IS THE AFFINITY OF CO FOR HGB THAN O2 IS?
200X
WHAT ARE THE 5 MAIN SIGNS AND SYPMTOMS OF CO POISONING?
CHERRY RED SKIN,
TINITIS,
THROBBING TEMPLES,
HEADACHE,
DILATED PUPILS
WHEN POSITIONING A PERSON WITH UNILATERAL LUNG PROBLEMS WHAT IS THE BEST POSITION?
GOOD LUNG DOWN--TO PROMOTE OPTIMAL MATCHING OF VENTILATION AND PERFUSION
WHAT ARE THE APPROPRIATE SIZES OF FRENCH NP SUCTION CATHETERS FOR INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADULTS?
FR--5-8,
8-10,
12-18
WHEN PERFORMING NP SUCTIONING WHAT AMOUNT OF SUCTION IS APPROPRIATE?
60-80MMHG FOR INFANTS AND 80-120 MMHG FOR LARGER CHILDREN AND ADULTS
WHAT SHOULD THE GOAL OF PAO2 BE WHEN OXYGENATING A PT?
>60MMHG OR SAO2 93%OR>
WHAT % OF O2 DOES A NASAL CANULA DELIVER?
LOW TO MODERATE LEVELS--22-44%
WHAT % OF 02 DOES A SIMPLE O2 MASK DELIVER?
40-60%
WHAT % OF O2 DOES A PARTIAL REBREATHER MASK DELIVER?
50-70%
WHAT TYPE OF MASK DELIVERS THE HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS OF O2 POSSIBLE WITHOUT MECHANICAL VENTILATION?
NONREBREATHER---80-90%
WHAT O2 CONCENTRATIONS DOES A VENTURI MASK DELIVER?
24-50%
WHAT % OF O2 IS DELIVERED BY AN OXYHOOD?
22-90%(FOR PEDS AND TEMP AND HUMIDITY MUST BE CONTROLLED)
WHAT TYPE OF O2 DELIVERY SYSTEM IS GOOD FOR PEDS WITH CROUP?
OXYHOOD WITH 21-30%
WHAT IS THE RESK OF DAMAGE TO A NEWBORN IF O2 LEVELS ARE NOT MONITORED?
RETINAL DAMAGE
WHY MUST O2 LEVELS ADMINISTERED TO A COPD PT BE CLOSELY MAINTAINED?
BECAUSE THESE PATIENTS BREATHE PRIMARILY AS A RESPONSE TO HYPOXEMIA
WHAT IS CROSS-MATCHING OF BLOOD?
MATCHING BLOOD TO BE INFUSED WITH THE PATIENT'S BLOOD
HOW MANY ABO GROUPS ARE THERE AND WHAT ARE THEY?
4---A,B,AB,AND O
WHICH BLOOD TYPE IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE UNIVERSAL DONOR?
O
WHICH BLOOD TYPE IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT?
AB
NAME 3 COMMON CLOTTING FACTORS?
PLATELETS, FFP, CRYOPRECIPITATE
HOW LONG SHOULD EXPIRATION LAST IN COMPARISON TO INSPIRATION?
TWICE AS LONG
IF YOU PERCUSS A LUNG THAT IS PNEUMONIC, HOW SHOULD IT SOUND?
DULL
THIS NORMAL BREATH SOUND TYPE IS HEARD OVER THE STERNUM, IS LOUD, AND TUBULAR?
BRONCHIAL
THIS NORMAL BREATH SOUND TYPE IS HEARD OVER THE ANTERIOR 1/3 OF THE CHEST NEAR THE STERNUM AND AROUND THE SCAPULA POSTERIORLY?
BRONCHOVESICULAR
THIS NORMAL BREATH SOUND TYPE IS SOFT AND LOW IN PITCH AND IS HEARD OVER THE MAJORITY OF THE LUNGS?
VESICULAR
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION; DRY, HIGH-PITCHED CRACKLING AND POPPING CAUSED BY AIR PASSING THROUGH MOISTURE IN SUDDENLY-REINFLATING SMALLER AIRWAYS?
FINE CRACKLES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION; MOIST, LOW-PITCHED CRACKLING AND GURGLING OF LONG DURATION CAUSED BY AIR PASSING THROUGH MOISTURE IN SUDDENLY-REINFLATING LARGER AIRWAYS?
COARSE CRACKLES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON WXPIRATION; HIGH PITCHED AND MUSICAL SOUNDS CAUSED BY NARROWING OF LARGE AIRWAYS OR OBSTRUCTION OF THE BRONCHUS?
SONOROUS WHEEZES
THIS NORMAL BREATH SOUND TYPE IS HEARD OVER THE ANTERIOR 1/3 OF THE CHEST NEAR THE STERNUM AND AROUND THE SCAPULA POSTERIORLY?
BRONCHOVESICULAR
THIS NORMAL BREATH SOUND TYPE IS SOFT AND LOW IN PITCH AND IS HEARD OVER THE MAJORITY OF THE LUNGS?
VESICULAR
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION; DRY, HIGH-PITCHED CRACKLING AND POPPING CAUSED BY AIR PASSING THROUGH MOISTURE IN SUDDENLY-REINFLATING SMALLER AIRWAYS?
FINE CRACKLES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION; MOIST, LOW-PITCHED CRACKLING AND GURGLING OF LONG DURATION CAUSED BY AIR PASSING THROUGH MOISTURE IN SUDDENLY-REINFLATING LARGER AIRWAYS?
COARSE CRACKLES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON EXPIRATION; LOW PITCHED SNORING SOUND CAUSED BY NARROWING OF LARGE AIRWAYS OR OBSTRUCTION OF THE BRONCHUS?
SONOROUS WHEEZES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON EXPIRATION; HIGH-PITCHED AND MUSICAL SOUNDS CAUSED BY NARROWING OF LARGE AIRWAYS OR OBSTRUCTION OF THE BRONCHUS?
SIBILANT WHEEZES
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION; CREAKING OR GRATING SOUND CAUSED BY INFLAMED PARIETAL AND VISCERAL PLEURA?
PLEURAL FRICTION RUB
THIS ABNORMAL BREATH SOUND IS HEARD ON INSPIRATION; CROWING SOUND CAUSED BY PARTIAL OBSTRUCTION OF LARYNX AND TRACHEA?
STRIDOR
WHAT HEART RATE IS CONSIDERED TACHYCARDIA IN INFANTS?
>180
WHAT TYPES OF AILMENTS MIGHT CAUSE CLUBBING OF FINGERTIPS AND TOES?
LUNG, HEART, LIVER, AND GI DISORDERS
WHAT IS THE NORMAL HGB VALUE FOR AN ADULT FEMALE, MALE AND NEWBORN?
12-16 GM/DL
13-18 GM/DL
14-24 GM/DL
WHAT ARE NORMAL ADULT HEMATOCRIT LEVELS?
36-53%
WHAT ARE NORMAL PAO2 VALUES?
80-100MMHG
WHAT ARE NORMAL PACO2 VALUES?
35-45 MMHG
WHAT ARE THE NORMAL HCO3 VALUES?
22-26 MMHG
WHAT IS A PFT?
PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST; DESIGNED TO MEASURE LUNG SIZE AND AIRWAY PATENCY
WHAT IS A PULMONARY ANGIOGRAPHY?
THE STUDY OF BLOOD FLOW TO THE LUNG
WHAT PASSAGEWAY IS A BRONCHOSCOPE INSERTED INTO?
THE NOSE
WHAT TYPE OF MEDICATIONS ARE IODINATED GLYCEROL AND GUAIFENISIN?
EXPECTORANTS