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30 Cards in this Set

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organs of the gastroinstestinal systems
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomache, small intestines, and large instestines
what are the 3 parts of the small intestines?
duodenum ( 1st smallest)
jejunum ( 2nd longest)
ileum ( small narrow and passes throught the ileocecal valve.
What is the valve joint that joins the small and large intestine ?
ileocecal valve
where does digestion occur?
stomache except starches begin in the mouth
Chemical digestion ?
chemical digestion occurs when enzymes, gastric and intestinal juices, bile and pancreatic juices c hange food into nutrients to be used by the body.
what foods require chemical digestion?
carbohydrtes, proteins and fats
what is peristalsis?
a coordinated, rhythmic serial contraction of the smooth muscles of the gastro tract and forces chyme(an acidic semifluid paste) through the small and large intestines
what is absorption?
the process wherby the end products of digestion pass through the epithelial membranes in the small and large intestines and into the blood or lymph system.
where do most water soluble nutrients absorption occur?
through the villi finger like projections lining the small intestines.
where are fats absorbed?
lymph system and further brokendown and eventualy enter the blood stream and thoracic duct.
what is metabolism?
conversion fo nutrients into energy by the body. this energy is used by the cells or stored for later use
what are the two processess of metbolism?
anabolism
catabolism
anabolism is the constructive process of metabolism new molecules are synthesized.
catabolism is the destructive process of metabolism this is when tissues or substances are broken inot their componet parts.
what is oxidation?
the chemical process fo combining nutrients with oxygen. this produces energy
what is excretion?
the process of eliminating or removing waste products from the body.
what are solid waste made up of?
dietary fiber and other indigestible materials, salts, and other products suchas bile and water
what are liquid wastes?
is sent through the kidneys and bladder as urine. liquid is also removed through the sweat glands of the skin as perspiration.
where do removal of gaseous waste take place?
through the lungs
defin calorie
and what is the amount of heat needed to raise the temp of water
the common term use4d to refer to the more accurate kilocalorie(kcal) a measure of the energy content of food.

1degree cel
basal metabolic rate
amount of energy needed to maintain essential body functins expressed as calories per hour per square meter of the body
what percent of adults body is water? infants?
50-60%
infant 70-75%
what percent of water is icf
2/3
what percent of water is ecf?
1/3
water lost m ust be replaced to maintain metabolism generally 1000 ml of what is needed to process every _____ kcal eaten?
1000
what makes up a carbohydrate?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
what is the chief source of energy for al body function?
carbohydrates
what is a simple carbohydrate?
single sugar ro monosaccharides, glucose, frutose, galactose
foudn in fruits, honeys, and corn syrups. require no digestion a quickly absorbed used immediately for energy or stored as glycogen.
two single surgar combined togather (single complex)sucrose, maltose, lactose are
disaccharides found in milk, sweetners sugar and molases. there are seperated into monosaccharides before digested
complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides are composed of many single sugars such as
starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber oined togather. found in grains, grain products, egumes, potatoes these are digested more slowly than simple carbs.
where does glyclogen come from
made by liver
what is soluble nutrient
slows gastric emptying binds bile acids and cholesterol, and provides a feeling of fullness.