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30 Cards in this Set

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What is the scientific basis for the development of an illness?
* Etiology
* Pathogenesis
* Adaptive factors
* Clinical manifestations
Define Pathophysiology.
Pathophysiology is the science dealing with disease caused by alterations in function.
Differentiate the etiology and pathogenesis in relation to disease.
* Ethiology is the assignment of causes of illness.
* Pathogenesis is how the illness evolves. Prodromal to restorative phases.
* Clinical manifestations is the specific signs and symptoms.
Define pathogenesis.
Pathogenesis is te sequence of events in the origin and development of the disease process.
(e.g. weakening if the air sacs in the lung)
What are the stages of a disease?
1. Exposure/injury
2. Incubation period
3. Prodromal period
4. Acute phase
5. Remission
6. Convelescence
7. Recovery
What are the three factors related to disease progression, cell aging, and even cell death?
1. Intrinsic factors
2. Extrinsic factors
3. Heriditary factors
Explain the Intrinsic factor.
The intrinisic factor is the part of the individual that may not be modifiable.
*gender
*age
*previous disease-related abnormalities
*Karotype/family history
Explain the Extrinsic factor.
The extrinsic factor is the:
*Pathogens and environmental factors such as thermal, chemical or traumatic events.
(e.g. toxic chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, and extremes of temperatures)
Explain the Heriditary factors.
Heriditary factors are the DNA. *the storage area of inherited information. * Must be replicated (copied exactly and the transcribed information must be used to produce RNA polymers) *Contains information controlling the synthesis of proteins.
Define DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)carries genetic information in a coded form using purine and pyrimidine bases to construct the code. It is made up of genetic information coding system.
Descibe the DNA structure.
The DNA structure is a double-stranded polymer in the form of a double helix.
*large polymer whose basic subunits are nucleotides
*composed of two chains of nucleotides held together in a double helix by base pairing
*necessary for the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA)
Define the cell membrane?
The cell membrane is a series of lipid and protein components.
*lipids provide the structural integrity of the membrane
*proteins provide the major membrane functions for receptors, transporters, or enzymatic activity
*cellular membrance also contains carbohydrates called glycoproteins (selective permeability-maintains cellular fluid, electrolyte, and component balance)
What is Mitochondria?
Mitochondria provides cellular metabolism that generates cellular ATP. The outer membrane around this organelle is permeable. The inner membrane has selective permeability.
What is a Ribosome?
Ribosomes are the structure and function that comes from RNA. RNA plus protein is a ribosome. It provides sites for cellular protein synthesis. Synthesis is in the nucleus.
What is the Golgi apparatus?
The Golgi apparatus (Golgi Complex) is a specialized portion of the endoplasmic reticulum usually located near the nucleus. It is prominent in secretory cells that can store and condense secretory substances.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
The endoplasmic reticulum is the synthesis and transport of cellular proteins and lipids. The components are most of the cell's organelle. Membranes are osmotic (rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes and ribonucleoprotein particles)
What is a lysosome?
A lysosome is a digestive process of the cell. It is smooth and does not originate in the Golgi apparatus.
What is the nucleus?
The nucleus' primary function is cellular division and control of genetic information. DNA: essential for cellular division, concentrated within the nucleus. RNA(3 types)*messenger-carries the genetic code from the DNA to the cytoplasm for the information of protein, this process is called transcription. * Transfer-is the transfer of amino acid molecules to protein molecules. *Ribosomal is believed to act as a physical structure upon which protein is formed, and it contains a nucleolus.
What is a Nucleolus/Nucleoli?
The Nucleolus/Nucleoli is cells that can have more than one. No membrance contains cellular DNA.
What is the Cell surfaces?
The cell surface contains cilia (movement within fluid, micro villi, that aids absorption)
In regards to cellular functioning: Define movement.
The movement is the muscle cells that generate movement-control system is neural.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define conductivity.
Conductivity is the conduction that is a response to a stimulus, a wave of excitation, an electrical potential-control system is neural.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define metabolic absorption.
Metabolic absorption is the cells that absorb and use the nutrients. Metabolic activity responds to a humoral control.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define secretion.
Secretion is the synthesis of new substances from substances that are absorbed by the cell Control and can be neural or humoral.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define excretion.
Excretion is the ability to rid themselves of waste products. The control is both neural and humoral.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define respiration.
Respiration is how cells require oxygen to produce energy rich compound ATP and this occurs in the mitochondria.
In regards to cellular functioning: Define reproduction.
Reproduction is the ability of cells to reproduce to allow for tissue growth not all cells are capable of continuous division.
Define mitosis.
Mitosis is nuclear division and results in replication of a cell with the same number and type of organelles.
Define Meiosis.
Meiosis is the reproduction of gametes.
*Oogenesis is the production of the egg.
* Spermatogenesis is the production of the sperm.
Define skin differentiation and explain the layers.
Differentiation of skin has three layers.
*Ectoderm which is the outer most layer. It is the protective layer of skin, sense organs.
* The Mesoderm is the middle layer. It is the supportive tissues of bone, muscle, connective tissue, and blood.
*Endoderm is the outermost layer, lining of digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts.