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30 Cards in this Set

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What solution has the same osmotic pressure as blood
Isotonic or iso-osmolar solutions
Which solution has a lower osmotic pressure than blood
hypotonic or hypo-osmolar solutions
What balances fluid volume in the body
Thirst to replenish
Kidney to excrete
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism
Antidiuretic hormone
Atrial nartiuretic factor
What is the function of the aldosterone hormone
Stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium
How is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism initiated
Decreased perfusion to the kidneys, which then releases renin.
What does renin combine with to form angiotensin 1
angiotensinogen
What is the function of angiotensin II
It stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
How does the ADH (antidiuretic hormone) function
Increase the reabsorption of water
Released in response to increased osmolality
Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
Where and why is atrial natriuretic peptide released
Atrium is stretched from fluid overload
It is released in the atrium of the heart, when the atrium is stretch from fluid overload.
What is the function of natriuretic peptide?
Acts to decrease fluid retention by blocking the secretion and action of aldosterone and inhibiting renin secretion
What refers to fluid volume deficit, fluid loss, reduced fluid intake, and fluid shift out of vascular space
Hypovolemia
What are some causes of hypovolemia
Fluid loss
Hemorrhage, polyuria, vomiting, diarrhea, fistulas, fever, excessive nasogastric suctioning
Other than fluid loss what other measures would cause hypovolemia
Reduced fluid intake. Fluid shift from extracellular fluid as in burns, pancreatitis, crushing injuries, acute intestinal obstruction
Give examples of clinical manifestations of hypovolemia
Hypotension, thirst, poor skin turgor, dry mucous membrane, decrease in urinary output
What solutions are order intravenously for hypovolemia
isotonic solutions
What does the doctor order in cases of hypovolemia
oral/parenteral fluids
hemorrhage/blood products
antidiarrheals/diarrhea
antiemetics/vomiting
vasopressors/shock
Define hypervolemia
Fluid volume excess or abnormally increased volume of blood
Define Edema
An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells or intercellular tissues
Define third spacing
Loss of extracellular fluid from the vascular to other body compartments.
Give an example of third spacing
Ascits
pleural effusion
Hypervolemia
Increase of sodium and water retention
Name some signs of hypervolemia
Dyspnea Crackles Hypertension Edema Ventricular gallop
What is the treatment for hypervolemia
Restrict sodium and water fluid.
NPO
Which cation is largely responsible for osmotic pressure of the excellular fluid compartment
Na (sodium)
How is sodium regulated
Kidneys are the main regulated
Hyponatremia
Deficeit of sodium
Water to shift out of the excellular spaces into the cells
Hypernatremia
Water to shift out of the cells
Excess of sodium
What are some causes of hyponatremia
Diuretic therapy/excessive diuresis excessive water intake
vomiting/diarrhea/fistula
adrenocorticoid insufficiency
How is hypernatremia treated
Infusion of sodium bicarbonate, hypertonic saline, isotonic saline
What are some symptoms of hyponatremia
anorexia, lethargy, and disorientation