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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What chief electrolyte of the ECF
Na+ Sodium
What is the major cation of ICF
K+ Potassium
What is the most abundant electrolyte in the body
Ca+ Calcium
Where is most of the cation magnesium found
Within body cells such as the heart, bone, nerve, and musscle tissues
What is the second most important cation in the ICF
Mg+ Magnesium
What is the chief extracellular ion ECF
Cl- Chloride
What is the major chemical base buffer within the body
HCO3 Bicarbonate
What the the major anion in body cells and acts as a buffer in both ICF and ECF
PO Phosphate
What is Na function
Controls and regulates the volume of body fluid
Maintains water balance
Primary regulator of ECF volume
Influences ICF volume
Participates the the generation and transmission of nerve impulses
Essential electrolyte in the NaK pump
What is K function
Chief regulator of cellular enzyme activity and cellular water content
Plays a vital role in transmission of electric impulses, in the heart, nerves, skeletal, intestinal, lung tissue
Protein and carbohydrate metabolism and cellular building
Assists in regulation of acidbase balance by cellular exchange with H+
What is Ca function
Necessary for nerve impulse transmission and blood clotting
Catalyst for muscle contraction
Needed for vitamin B absorption and for its use by body cells
Acts as a catalyst for many cell chemical activities
Strong bones and teeth
Determines the thickness and strength of cell memebranes
What is Mg function
Important for the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins
Important for many vital reactions involving enzymes
protein and DNA synthesis
DNA and RNA transcription translation of RNA
Maintains normal intracellulr levels of K
Maintain electrical activity in nervous tissue membranes and muscle membranes
What is Cl- function
Acts with sodium to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood
Role in the body's acidbase balance
Important buffering action when O2 and CO2 exchange in RBC
Essential for the production of hydrochloric acid in gastric juices
What is HCO3 function
Essential for acidbase balance
bicarbonate and carbonic acid constitue the body's primary buffer system
What is PO- funciton
Maintains the body's acid base balance
Involved in important chemical reaction in the body
Important in cell division and for the transmissio of hereditary traits
How is Na excesses eliminated
Kidneys and small amounts lost in feces and perspiration
What are the leading food sources for K
bananas peaches oranges broccoli and potatoes
How is K excreted
Kidneys deficits occur if potassium excretion in excess without being replaced simultaneously
What is the average daily requirement for Ca in adults and children
Adults require about 1g
Children and pregnant women by body weight
1500mg day for older adults
The use of Ca is stimulated by vitamin D, most active form of vitamin D is
Calcitiol responsible for promoting calcium absorption and limiting calcium excretion when levels are inadequate
How is Ca excreted
Urine, feces, bile, digestive secretions, and perspiration
What is the average daily adult requirement of Mg
18-30mEq, children requiring larger amounts
What foods are Mg found
most foods especially in vegetables, nuts, fish, whole grains, peas, and beans
What foods are Cl found
Foods high in Na, dairy products, and meat
Where can HCO3 be lost
diarrhea, diuretics, and early renal insufficiency
Where can HCO3 excesses excrete
Overingestion of acid neutralizers
What is the average daily requirements of PO
1g for adults; higher amounts for children and pregnant women
The normal extracellular concentration of Na
What electrolyte is maintianed in the body within a relatively narrow range and deviates quickly resulting in serious health provlems
T/F Sodium concentrations affected by salt, as well as water intake
Where is Na conserved
Through reabsorption in the kidneys stimulated by aldosterone
Where is K conserved
The Na pump. When Na is excluded conservation by kidneys wwhen K decreased
What hormone triggers K excretion in urine
What is the normal range of serum K
3.5 to 5mEq/L
What hormone increasingly secreted increases the release of Ca
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Explain the process of parathyroid hormone and Ca
PTH increase secretion; increases the release of Ca from bones into the blood and to increase reabsorption for kidneys and intestine when ECF levels are decreased
T/F High serum phosphate concentration results in increased serum Ca level
False it results in decreased Ca level
T/F A high serum phosphate concentration leads to increased serum Ca
False A low serum phosphate concentration leads to increased serum Ca
Where is calcitonin hormone secreted
Thyroid gland
T/F Increases in calcitonin resulting in reduced serum calcium concentration primarily by opposing osteoclast bone resorption
Where is Mg absorbed and excreted
What is the plasma concentrations of Mg
Ranging from 1.3-2.1mEq/L
1/3 bound to plasma proteins
What is Cl- normally paired with what electrolyte
Where is Cl exerted and conserved with sodium
Deficit of what eletrolyte leads to K deficits
What electrolyte deficit leads to Cl deficits
What are the normal serum Cl levels
What regulates the bicarbonate levels
Carbon dioxide formation during metabolism makes what elecytrolyte readily available
What are normal bicarbonate levels
What regulates PO and activates PO
PTH regulates and Vitamin D activates PO
An increase in Ca causes what electrolyte to decrease
An increase in PO causes what electrolyte to decrease
What is the normal range of PO
25 to 45 mEq/L
What provides nourishment to each body cell and receives each cell's waste products
What is provided to the body when ECF nourishers each body cell and receives each cell;s waste products
Fluid balance and homeostasis that are essential to life
What is the most common routes for transporting materials to and from intracellular compartments
osmosis, diffusion, active transport, and filtration
What is osmosis
Major method of transporting body fluids. Water to be transported through cell walls
What is vital to all forms of life
What do fluids do for the body
they maintain body temperature and cell shape, and they help transport nutrients, gases and wastes
What is the largest single component of the body and at what percent
water at 60%
Name some functions of water in the body
transports nurtrients to cells and waste from cells
acts as a solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
helps maintain normal body temp.
facliltate digestion and promote elimination
acts as a tissue lubricant
Which organs work to maintain proper fluid balance
all organs but mainly lungs, skin, and kidneys
T/F To maintain fluid balance fluid gained must equal the amount of fluid lost throughout the day
define solvents
liquids that hold a substance in solution (water)
Define solutes
substances dissolved in a solution (electrolytes and non-electrolytes)
How can fluid loss be measured
From urine, defecation (diarrhea) and wounds
On average how much sensible loss is by an adult
On average 100-200cc defecation
5000cc in severe diarrhea per day
Define insensible loss
Fluid that cannot be measured
Define sensible loss
Fluid that can be measured
How much insensible loss by an adult
skin - 600ml depending on activity
Lungs - 400ml depending on climate
How much intake is by a normal healthy adult
Give examples of intake and their weights
liquids 1500ml
solid foods 800ml
H2O of oxidation 300ml
(egauls 2600ml)
Give examples of output by a healthy normal adult
skin - 600ml
lungs - 400ml
kidneys - 1500ml
intestines - 100ml
(equals 2600ml)
Where does the body hold its fluids
intracellular and extracellular
Define intracellular and what percentage of body weight
fluids found in the cell
makes up 40% of body weight
Define extracellular and what percentage of body weight
fluids found outside the cell
makes up 20% of body weight
Of the two compartments, intracellular and extracellular, what percentage of fluid is in each cell and out of each cell respectively
ICF within the cell is 70%
ECF outside the cell is 30%
T/F A child without fluids for one day is more harmful than an adult without fluid
Why do women and obese people have less body water
They have more adipose tissue, and that does not contain water
An infant at birth has how much body water
A premature infant has how much body water
T/F Sex and amount of fat cells affect body water
Explain intracellular fluid (within cell)
Comprises all fluid within body cells
The fluid contains dissolved solutes essential to fluid and electrolyte balance and metabolism
Explain extracellular fluid (outside cell)
It is broken down into 2 types of fluid interstitial and intravascular
Explain interstitial fluid
The fluid between the cells and outside the blood vessels
Explain intravascular fluid
Blood plasma, the liquid portion of the blood
Other than interstitial and intravasculr fluid what other extracellular fluid is there
transcellular and organ
What is the transcellular fluid
It is in the cerebrospinal column, pleural cavity, joints, eyes, and lymph; generally not subject to significant gains and losses
Give some factors affecting proportions of body fluids
Disease process
Body fat
T/F Percentage of water as body weight decreases with age until puberty
After the age of 60 at what percentage does water drop and why
Water contents drop to 45% due to loss of skeletal muscle
What is defined as minerals or salts in the body's water
Explain how an electrolyte carries a charge
When it is dissolved in water or another solvent separates into ions and carries an electrical charge, electrical charges make cells function normally
What kind of charge do cation and anions have
cations are a positive charge
anions have a negative charge
Should cations and anions be balanced in each compartment
Why is important that fluids and solutes move constantly within the body
the movement allows the body to maintain homeostasis
Why do fluids and electrolytes constantly shift from compartment to compartment
To facilitate the body process i.e. tissue O2, acid-base balance, and urine formaiton
Cell membranes separate body fluid compartments and are selectively pereable. How do water, ions, and molecules pass
water passes through easily
ions and molecules pass more slowly
Explain osmosis
water passes from area of lesser solute concentration to greater concentaration until equilibrium is established
Explain diffusion
Tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent
Explain active transport
It requires energy for movement of substances through cell membrane from lesser solute concentration to higher solute concentration
Explain filtration
Passage of fluid through permeable membrane from area of higher to lower pressure
Explain the movement of Osmosis
Osmosis involves the movement of a pure solevent, such as water, theough a semipremeable membrane, from an area of less solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration
What does the rate of osomosis depend on
The concentration of the solutes in solution, the temperature of solution, the electrical charges of the solutes
Explain blood hydrostatic pressure
The pressure of plasma and blood cells against in the capillary
What is called the movement of fluid through capillaries
capillary filtration
what is tonicity
whether water will move or stay
what is hyperosmolarity
serum osmolilty greater than 295mOsm/kg
What is hypoosmolarity
serum osmolilty less than 275mOsm/kg
Does osmolilty affect tonicity
What does the intravascular space consist of
arteries, veins, and capillaries
What does the interstital space
Area surrounding the cells
What does extracellular fluid is composed of
Na,Cl,HCO3, and protein
The intracellular compartment is primarily what
What maintains the fluid balance between the intravascular and interstitial spaces
Capillary membranes
What does active transport consist of
osmosis, diffusion, and filtration
Define diffusion
Movement of ions and molecules across semipremable membrane of an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is met
Define filtration
Water and dissolved solutes move out of an area of higher hydostatic pressure to an area of lower pressure
Give an example of filtration
Greater pressure at the aterial end of the capillary bed pushes fluid through the capillary membrane into the interstitial stace
Example of a active transport system
Na K pump it moves substances from a area of low solute concentration to an area of higher concentration
Define osmolarity
measure of number of the particles dissolved in a solution
serum osmolality
Determined by fluid volume and the amount of particles such as Na, HCO3, protein, glucose, and uria in the extracellular compartment
Isotonic or Iso-osmolar solutions have the same osmotic pressure as blood. Give examples
Normal Saline(o.9%NaCl)
Lactated Ringer
5% dextrose in water (D5W)
What occurs when isotonic solution is given to a patient
Blood cells go through no change in isotonic solution,it will remain in the extracellular compartment
Give examples of a hypotonic IV solution
1/2 normal saline(0.45%NaCl)
2.5% dextrose in water (D2.5W)
What occurs when a hypotonic solution is given to a patient
Has a lower osmotic pressure than the blood. Shift fluid from the extracellular compartment into the cells
What occurs when a hypertonic solution is given to a patient
Pulls the fluid in the extracellular fluid spaces