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181 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structure of arteries?
Strong, tough and tense
What artery is palpated in middle of lower forearm?
What are the 3 sets of veins in the leg?
Superficial, deep and perforators
Which vein in leg has femoral and popliteal artery included in it?
What vein has great and small saphenous included in it?
What vein connects the deep and superficial veins together?
Where is the great saphenous vein located?
Inside of leg
Where is small saphenous vein located?
Runs down back of leg in the middle
Because ability to stretch veins are called?
Capacitance vessels
Risk factors for varicose veins?
Obesity and pregnancy
What empties into right subclavian vein?
Right Lymphatic duct
What duct drains to rest of body?
Thoracic duct
3 functions of lymphatic system
1. Conserve fluid and plasma proteins
2. Defends against disease
3. Absorb lipids from intestine
4 functions of Spleen
1. Destroy old red blood cells
2. Store red blood cells
3. Produce antibodies
4. Filter germs from blood
Thrill in right 2nd and 3rd interspaces indicates what 2 things?
1. Severe aortic stenosis
2. Systematic hypertension
What 3 conditions is lift (heave) associated with?
1. Pulmonic valve disease
2. Pulmonic hypertension
3. Chronic lung disease
2 things to do to reduce risk for pulmonary embolism?
1. Early mobilization
2. Low dose of anticoagulant medication
What condition has calcification of plutonic valve restricts forward flow of blood?
Pulmonic stenosis
Night leg pain can indicate?
Pain of PVD
Severe narrowing of aorta results in increased work load on left ventricle?
Coarction of the aorta
What heart defect does the blood not get enough oxygen?
Tetralogy of fallot
Pressure overload is found in what 2 conditions?
1. Aortic Stenosis
2. Hypertension
What occurs with infectious, immunologic, malignant diseases?
Enlarged lymph nodes
Calcification of AV valve restricts flow of blood during systole?
Aortic stenosis
What is a reason for stomach aches in children with no unrelated problems?
Excessive lymphoid response
What is the term for when an aging adult has sudden change or drop in blood pressure?
When rising or going to sit?
Orthostatic Hypotension
2 murmurs that need to be further evaluated?
1. Persistent murmurs that last 2 to 3 days
2. Holosystolic that last into diastole
Cause of edema, varicosities in legs, hemorrhoids in pregnant woman?
Obstructed uterus
The obstruction of the uterus in pregnancy causes what?
Low blood flow & increases venous pressure
Condition where peripheral blood vessels grow more rigid with age?
4+ 3+ 2+ 1+ 0
heart rate
4+ bounding
3+ increased
2+ normal
1+ weak
Buildup of fatty plaques & hardening of arterial wall?
What is followed by deep vein thrombosis or chronic incompetent valves?
Venous ulcer
What makes superficial varicose veins worse?
Unremitting hydrostatic pressure
What condition has incompetent valves permit reflux of blood?
Superficial varicose veins
Cause of deep vein thrombophlebitis?
Prolonged bed rest, history of varicose veins, trauma, cancer
If somebody has a deep vein thrombophlebitis what are they at risk for?
Pulmonary embolism
What condition reduces blood flow with vital oxygen & nutrients?
4 risk factors for occlusions?
1. Obesity
2. Smoking
3. Hypertension
4. Diabetes
What condition has a sac formed by dilation in artery wall?
2 things aneurysms do to body?
1. Stretches inner & outer layer
2. Effect blood pressure
When are aneurysms in men & woman more likely to get them?
Men over 55 and Women over 70
Edema 1+ 2+ 3+ 4+
1+ Mild pitting
2+ Moderate pitting
3+ Deep pitting
4+ Very deep pitting
Unilateral edema occurs with?
Blockage of a deep vein
Unilateral or bilateral edema occurs with?
Blockage of lymphatic
What is a possibility if calves are 1 cm or more?
Deep venous thrombosis
Indicator severe arterial insufficiency?
Indicator of arterial insufficiency?
What is the condition where there is pooling of blood in veins?
Chronic hypoxia
ABI of .90 to .70 indicates?
Mild claudicating
ABI of .70 to .40 indicates?
Moderate to severe
ABI of .40 to .30 indicates?
Severe claudicating
ABI of less than .30 indicates?
Characteristics of Raynaud’s syndrome?
Cold numbness in cyanosis & pallor
Throbbing Swelling in rubor
2 Common things in women during pregnancy?
1. Edema
2. Varicose veins
3 reasons for palpable nodes in children?
1. Past infection of diaper rash
2. Past infection of cervical nodes
3. Vaccinations
Weak pulses occur with?
Vasoconstriction of decreased cardiac output
Bounding pulses occur with?
Large left to right shunt
2 pulses hard to find in aging adult?
1. Dorsalis pedis
2. Posterior-tibial
3 characteristics of bronchial?
1. Low
2. Soft
3. Inspiration shorter than expiration
What is normal breathe sounds that sound like the wind blowing?
What breathe sound is more prominent during inspiration?
What breathe sound sounds like shaking out a rug?
Pleural rub
What breathe sounds sound like short wheezes?
Lowest diabetes men and women?
White men and women
crackles in lower lung fields occurs with?
heart failure
chronic bronchitis characterized by?
cough for 3 months of year for 2 years in a row
crackles in upper lung fields occurs with?
cystic fibrosis
early sign of heart failure in an infant?
tachypea of 50 to 100 bpm
what breathe sounds is inspiration longer than expiration?
number of alveoli in infant and the number in adults
70, 300
high pitched inspiratory crowing sound heard without stethascope?
what breathe sound is low and soft?
what breathe sound is inspiration shorter than expiration?
what breathe sound is high and loud?
what breathe sound is heard over peripheral lung sounds?
what breathe sound is heard over major bronchi where fewer alveoli?
stridor occurs with?
upper airway obstruction
atrium filling?
ventrices filling?
sputum is rust colored?
TB, pneumonia
sputum is pink?
edema, medications
difference between mitral and aortic stenosis?
mitral is rumbling and aortic is harsh
sign of cardiovascular disease?
normal in children? inspiration increases?
expiration decreases?
sinus arrhythmia
thrill or murmur? early indicator of?
aortic aneurysms
due to turbulance of blood flow in jugular system?
venous hum
heart is located on right side of chest?
occurs with atrial fibrillation? premature beats? heart failure?
pulse deficit
no treatment? protrusion of the sternum?
pectus carinatum
may need surgery? sunken sternum?
pectus excavatum
3 factors that affect normal intensity of tactile fremitus?
location, thickness, pitch & intensity
round knob seen in infants with ricket or scurvy?
rachitic rosary
term for when coughed up blood has odor?
indication of current infection in kids?
enlarged warm tender nodes
what happens to the costal angle in emphysema?
costal angle inflates
how do you find the manubriosternal angle?
walk fingers a few centimeters until you feel a bony ridge
what points connect ribs to cartilage? and aren't palpable?
costochondral junctions
what seperates thoracic cavity from from the abdomen?
2 prominent bones on back?
C7 & T1
bottom of left and upper lobes of lungs on back end at what vertebrae?
on the back the right and left lower lobes end at what vertebrae?
the bottom of the ribs end at what vertebrae?
on the front what ribs end at the lower left and right lobes of the lungs?
the inferior border of the lower lobes of the lungs reaches what vertebrae on inspiration?
the inferior border of the lower lobes of the lungs reaches what vertebrae on expiration?
why is the right lung shorter than the left lung?
because of the liver
laterally the lungs end at what ribs?
7th or 8th
2 types of pleura? which is inside lining and outside lining?
parietal is inside and visceral is outside
what area fills with air or fluid and can compromise lung expansion?
costodiaphramatic recess
what 2 things make up the dead space and are not available for gas exchange?
trachea and bronchi
what is the bronchi lined with that helps entrap particles?
goblet cells
what are the bronchi lined with that sweeps particles upward where they can be swallowed or expelled?
what is hypovenilation? what happens to carbon dioxide in blood?
slow, shallow breathing; carbon dioxide builds up in blood
what is hypervenilation? what happens to carbon dioxide in blood?
rapid, deep breathing; causes carbon dioxide to be blown off
what is the increase of carbon dioxide in blood?
what is the decrease of carbon dioxide in blood?
during heavy exercise the neck muscles raise up what 2 things?
sternum & rib cage
what happens during forced expiration?
diaphragm squeezes against lungs
what closes right after birth in heart?
foramen ovale
what do some pregnant women think is wrong but isn't wrong with them?
what 2 things happen to the costal cartilages in aging adult?
become calified
less mobile
what is the maximum amount of air that a person can expel from lungs after first filling lungs?
decreased vital capacity
what is the amount of air remaining in the lungs even after the most forceful expiration?
increased risdual volume
what 2 things make older people more susceptible to infection?
less of ability to cough and loss of protection airway reflexes
what does it mean if you are continously coughing throughout the day?
acute illnes example is respiratory infection
what does it mean if you are coughing in the afternoon/evening?
exposure to irritants at work
what does it mean if you are coughing at night?
sinuses and post nasal drip
what does it mean if you are coughing in early morning?
bronchial inflamed because of smoking
what could it mean when you are hacking?
what could it mean when you have a dry cough?
early heart failure
what could it mean when you have a barking cough?
what could it mean when you have congested coughs?
colds, bronchitis, pneumonia
shortness of breathe with night sweats?
what are farmers at risk for?
pesticide inhalation
people in midwest are at risk for?
people in the southwest and mexico are at risk for?
coal miners are at risk for?
stone cutters, miners and potters are at risk for?
why do people with COPD sit in tripod position?
gives leverage so can aid in expiration
what do you do during symmetric chest expansion?
place thumbs at T9 or T10 and ask person to take deep breathe and watch fingers move out
what do you do during assessing tactile fremitus?
place ball of fingers on 5 positions on back and have them say 99
3 factors that can affect tactile fremitus?
location, thickness and ptich and intensity
what fremitus is palpable with thick bronchial secretions?
what fremitus is palpable with inflamation of the pleura?
pleural friction
what means when there is too much air present?
what note means abnormal density in lungs?
what do you do during diaphragmatic excursion?
percuss to determine area between resonance and dullness on back; take deep breathe and hold it
what do you do during bronchophony voice sounds?
listen to back and tell patient to say 99
what do you do during egophony voice sounds?
ask the person to say a long eeeeeeeeee
what do you do during whispered pectoriloquy voice sounds?
ask person to whisper 1, 2, 3
where is liver dullness located on front of chest?
5th intercostal space
what does it mean when there is forced expiration for more than 6 seconds?
upper airway obstruction
crackles in upper lungs mean?
cystic fibrosis
crackles in lower lungs mean?
heart failure
AV valves open during heart's filling phase?
AV valves close during pumping phase?
area between S1 and S2 is what stage?
area between end of S2 and end of S4 is what stage?
closure of SL valves causes what heart sound?
closure of AV valves contributes to what heart sound?
what part of stethoscope do you use for heart sounds?
what part of stethoscope do you use for lung sounds?
blood pressure of pregnant women is the lowest during what trimester?
what is the change of diastole and systole in aging adult?
diastole doesn't change but systole increases
shortness of breathe?
difference between fatigue at night than during the day?
all day would be anxiety and fatigue at night is due to decreased cardiac output
what is dependent due to heart failure?
what will happen to jugular veins when there is heart failure?
what area do you listen to on right side 1 to 2 ribs down from clavicle?
aortic area
what area is 2 to 3 ribs down from left side and you can hear?
pulmonic area
the left valve is best heard in what area of chest?
1 to 2 cm right of left breast
the right valve is best heard over what area of the chest?
right in the middle between the 2 breast area
what kind of murmur always indicates heart disease?
diastolic murmur
normal heart rate after birth?
100 to 180 bpm
what is bradycardia in newborns and infants?
newborns less than 90 bpm
infants less than 60 bpm
how does the right jugular vein change in aging adult?
stiffens, dialates, elongates
artery palpated middle of inner upper arm?
artery palpated middle of inner lower arm?
what artery can you feel in crevis of arm and on both side of wrists?
what do you do for the manual compression test?
compress vein back of knee feel side of ankle and feel for no wave