Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Explain Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiologic- food, water, oxygen, sleep, homeostasis, excretion
2. Safety: security of body, employment, resources, of mortality, of the family, of health, of property
3. Love & belonging: friendship, family, sexual intimacy
4. Esteem: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
5. self actualization- mortality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts
Describe general adaptation syndrome as described by Selye
1. Alarm reaction stage- initial response to stressor
Heightened awareness Mobilize resources
“fight-or-flight reaction”

2. Resistance – coping and defense mechanisms begin to develop
Body’s resources depleted
Psychophysiological symptoms
Elevated neurotransmitters and hormones
(i.e. chronically stressed- chronic levels of epinephrine and adrenaline--> Headaches, HTN, ulcerative collitis, stress ulcers increase in corticosteroids- GERD increase in gastric secretions,
inability to process level of hormones/neurotransmitters appropriately.)
3. Exhaustion – occurs when client loses ability to cope
Disorganized and illogical thinking
Sensory misperceptions
Physical illness/death
(this is when people go over the edge, may be suicidal, may have an MI/CVA)
_____ is a universal human experience, it is a healthy protective response with protective function. It:
Stops us from engaging in high-risk activities
Helps us think more clearly in emergency situations
Normal anxiety provides energy to carry out tasks
anxiety
___ ____ ____ are used either consciously or unconsciously as protective devices in an effort to relieve mild to moderate anxiety. They become ______ when an individual uses them to such a degree that there is interference with the ability to deal with reality, with interpersonal relations, or with occupational performance.
EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS are used either consciously or unconsciously as protective devices in an effort to relieve mild to moderate anxiety. They become MALADAPTIVE when an individual uses them to such a degree that there is interference with the ability to deal with reality, with interpersonal relations, or with occupational performance.
Which defense mechanism is described?
a client is angry at his doctor, does not express it, but becomes verbally abusive to the nurse.
Displacement
Which defense mechanism is described?
the voluntary blocking of unpleasant feelings and experiences from one's awareness
Suppression
Which defense mechanism is described?
Jane hates nursing. She attended nursing school to please her parents. During career day, she speaks to prospective students about the excellence of nursing as a career.
Reaction Formation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Attributing feelings or impulses unacceptable to one's self to another person.
Projection
Which defense mechanism is described?
A woman drinks alcohol every day and can't stop, failing to acknowledge that she has a problem
Denial
Which defense mechanism is described?
an attempt to increase self worth by acquiring certain attributes and characteristics of an individual one admires
Identification
Which defense mechanism is described?
An accident victim can remember nothing about the accident
Repression
Which defense mechanism is described?
Attempting to make excuses or formulate logical reasons to justify unacceptable feelings or behaviors
Rationalization
Which defense mechanism is described?
A physically handicapped boy is unable to participate in football, so he excells in school instead.
Compensation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Joe is nervous about his new job and yells at his wife. On his way home, he stops and buys her some flowers.
Undoing
Which defense mechanism is described?
An attempt to avoid expressing actual emotions associated with a stressful situation by using the intellectual processes of logic, reasoning, and analysis.
Intellectualization
Which defense mechanism is described?
Responding to stress by retreating to an earlier level of development and the comfort measures associated with that level of functioning
Regression
Which defense mechanism is described?
Integrating the beliefs of another individual into one's own ego structure
Introjection
Which defense mechanism is described?
Rechanneling of drives or impulses that are personally or socially unacceptable into activities that are constructive
Sublimation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Without showing any emotion, a young woman describes being attacked and raped.
Isolation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Scarlet O'Hara says, I don't want to think about that now. I'll think about that tomorrow.
Suppression
Which defense mechanism is described?
A mother whose son was killed by a drunk driver channels her anger and energy into being the president of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD)
Sublimation
Which defense mechanism is described?
the transfer of feelings from one target to another that is considered less threatening or that is neutral
Displacement
Which defense mechanism is described?
Refusing to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or the feelings associated with it
Denial
Which defense mechanism is described?
John tells the rehab nurse, "I drink because it's the only way I can deal with my bad marriage and my worse job."
Rationalization
Which defense mechanism is described?
Symbolically negating or canceling out an experience that one finds intolerable
Undoing
Which defense mechanism is described?
A 2 year old is hospitalized with tonsilitis and will only drink from a bottle even though the mother states he has been drinking from a cup for months.
Regression
Which defense mechanism is described?
A teenage boy who required lengthy rehabilitation after an accident decides to become a physical therapist as a result of his experiences
Identification
Which defense mechanism is described?
Preventing unacceptable or undesirable thoughts or behaviors from being expressed by exaggerating opposite thoughts or types of behaviors
Reaction Formation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Covering up a real or perceived weakness by emphasizing a trait one considers more desirable
Compensation
Which defense mechanism is described?
Children integrate their parent's value system into the process of conscience formation. A child says to a friend, "Don't cheat; it's wrong."
Introjection
Which defense mechanism is described?
Sue feels a strong sexual attraction to her track coach and tells her friend, "He's coming on to me."
Projection
Mild, moderate, severe anxiety or panic?
Physical – increased HR, BP, muscle tension accompanied by restlessness, body ache Emotional – sense of foreboding, impending doom
Cognitive – racing thoughts
moderate anxiety
Mild, moderate, severe anxiety or panic?
Physical – hyperventilation, tremors, GI upset Emotional – fearful, “nervous”, sense of dread
Cognitive – flight of ideas, inability to focus
severe anxiety
Mild, moderate, severe anxiety or panic?
Physical - erratic VS, aggression, suicidal Emotional – fear of dying, fear of injury
Cognitive – irrational, illogical, delusional
panic
Mild, moderate, severe anxiety or panic?
Physical – increased HR, BP, muscle tension
Emotional – excitement, mild fear
Cognitive – increased alertness
mild anxiety
Ego defense mechanisms are major means of managing conflict, they are relatively conscious/unconscious, and they are indiscrete/discrete. They can be adaptive or maladaptive and they are irreversible/reversible.
Ego defense mechanisms are major means of managing conflict, they are relatively unconscious, and they are discrete. They can be adaptive or maladaptive and they are reversible.
The defense mechanism introjection can interfere with not having a sense of ____.
self

Similarly, identification can be detrimental if the person "loses themself" in the process
The subjective state of emotional, physical, and social responses to the
loss of a valued entity. The loss may be real or perceived.
grief
What are the Kubler- Ross stages of grief?
Denial- stage of shock & disbelief. The reality of the loss is not acknowledged. It is a protective mechanism that allows the individual to cope within an immediate time frame while organizing more effective defense strategies,
Anger- "Why me?" & "It's not fair!" are comments expressed during this stage. Envy and resentment toward individuals not affected by the loss are common. Anger may be directed at the self or displaced on loved ones, caregivers, and even God. There may be a preoccupation with an idealized image of the lost entitiy.
Bargaining- During this stage, which is usually NOT visible or evident to others, a "bargain" is made with God in an attempt to reverse or postpone the loss. Sometimes the primise is associated with feelings of guilt for not having performed satisfactorily, appropriately, or sufficiently.
Depression- During this stage, the full impact of the loss is experienced. The sense of loss is intense, and feelings of sadness and depression prevail. This is a time of quiet desperation and disengagement from all association with the lost entity. This stage differs from pathological depression in that it represents ADVANCEMENT toward resolution rather than the fixation in an eariler stage of the grief process
Acceptance- final stage brings a feeling of peace regarding the loss that has occurred. It is a time of quiet expectation and resignation. The focus is on the reality of the loss and its meaning for the individual affected by it.
True or False: All individuals experience each stage of grief in response to a loss and experience them in the same order.
False. Some individuals' grieving behaviors may fluctuate and even overlap, among the stages. Not all stages are experienced and not always experienced in the same order.
Is anticipatory grief helpful, harmful, or both?
When a loss is anticipated, individuals often begin the grieving before the actual loss. Most reexperience the grieving behaviors once the loss occurs, but having the time to prepare for the loss can facilitate the process of mourning, actually decreasing the intensity of the response. Problems can arise, particularly in anticipating the death of a loved one, when family members experience anticipatory grieving and the mourning process is completed prematurely. They disengage emotionally from the dying person, who then may feel rejected by the loved ones at a time when psychologic support is so important.
The grief response can last from weeks to years. It can't be hurried, and individuals need to progress at their own pace. After the loss of a loved one, grief work usually lasts for at least... Length of the grief process may be prolonged by a number of factors. If the relationship with the lost entity had been marked by ambivalence or if there had been an enduring "love-hate" association, the reaction to the loss may be burdned with ___. This lengthens the grief reaction by promoting feelings of anger toward the self for having committed a wrongdoing or behaved in an unacceptable manner toward that which is now lost. It may even lead to feeling that one's behavior contributed to the loss.
The grief response can last from weeks to years. It can't be hurried, and individuals need to progress at their own pace. After the loss of a loved one, grief work usually lasts for at least ONE YEAR. Length of the grief process may be prolonged by a number of factors. If the relationship with the lost entity had been marked by ambivalence or if there had been an enduring "love-hate" association, the reaction to the loss may be burdned with GUILT. This lengthens the grief reaction by promoting feelings of anger toward the self for having committed a wrongdoing or behaved in an unacceptable manner toward that which is now lost. It may even lead to feeling that one's behavior contributed to the loss.
True or False: If a loss is sudden and unexpected, mourning may take longer than it would if individuals were able to grieve in anticipation of the loss.
true
Length of the grieving process is also affected by the number of recent losses experienced by an individual and whether he or she is able to complete one grieving process before another loss occurs. What is this called? What group is this most commonly associated with?
Bereavement overload
Elderly
The individual who experiences a ____ ____ to grief is fixed in the ____ stage. All the normal responses associated with grieving, such as helplessness, hopelessness, sadness, anger, and guilt, are exaggerated out of proportion to the situaiton. The individual turns anger inward on the self, is consumed with overwhelming despair, and is unable to function in normal ADL. ______ ____ is a type of this response.
The individual who experiences a DISTORTED RESPONSE to grief is fixed in the ANGER stage. All the normal responses associated with grieving, such as helplessness, hopelessness, sadness, anger, and guilt, are exaggerated out of proportion to the situaiton. The individual turns anger inward on the self, is consumed with overwhelming despair, and is unable to function in normal ADL. PATHOLOGICAL DEPRESSION is a type of this response.
What 2 stages of grief do most people end up stuck in for a prolonged period?
denial & anger
A _____ response is characterized by an intense preoccupation with memories of the lost entity for many years after the loss has occurred. Behaviors associated with the stages of denial or anger are manifested, and disorganization of function and intense emotional pain related to the lost entity are evidenced.
A prolonged response is characterized by an intense preoccupation with memories of the lost entity for many years after the loss has occurred. Behaviors associated with the stages of denial or anger are manifested, and disorganization of function and intense emotional pain related to the lost entity are evidenced.
In the delayed or inhibited response, the individual becomes fixed in the ____ stage of the grieving process. Emotional pain associated with the loss is not experienced, but anxiety disorders (phobias, hydrochondriasis) or sleeping and eating disorders may be evident.The individual may remain in this stage for many years until a grief response is triggered by a reminder of the loss or even by another, unrelated loss.
In the delayed or inhibited response, the individual becomes fixed in the DENIAL stage of the grieving process. Emotional pain associated with the loss is not experienced, but anxiety disorders (phobias, hydrochondriasis) or sleeping and eating disorders may be evident.The individual may remain in this stage for many years until a grief response is triggered by a reminder of the loss or even by another, unrelated loss.
True or False: It is usually members of the lay community rather than a psychiatric professional who initially recognize that an individual's behavior deviate from the social norms.
True
People who are related to an individual or who are of the same cultural or social group are more/less likely to label that individual's behavior as mental illness than someone who is relationally or culturally distant.
People who are related to an individual or who are of the same cultural or social group are LESS likely to label that individual's behavior as mental illness than someone who is relationally or culturally distant. Family members try to "normalize" the behavior and try to find an explanation to it.
Psychiatrists see a person with mental illness most often when the family members can no longer ___ the illness and often when the behavior is at its ___. The local or cultural ____ define pathologic behavior.
Psychiatrists see a person with mental illness most often when the family members can no longer DENY the illness and often when the behavior is at its WORST. The local or cultural NORMS define pathologic behavior.
Individuals in the highest/lowest socioeconomic class usually display the highest amount of mental illness symptoms. They tend to tolerate a wider range of behaviors that deviate from societal norms and are more/less likely to consider these behaviors as indicative of mental illness. Mental illness labels are most often applied by psychiatric professionals.
Individuals in the LOWEST socioeconomic class usually display the highest amount of mental illness symptoms. They tend to tolerate a wider range of behaviors that deviate from societal norms and are LESS likely to consider these behaviors as indicative of mental illness. Mental illness labels are most often applied by psychiatric professionals.
True or False: The higher the social class, the greater the recognition of mental illness behaviors (as defined by societal norms).
True
Members of the higher social classes are likely to be self-labeled or labeled by family members or friends. Psychiatric assistance is sought soon after the first signs of emotional distubance.
The more highly ____ a person is, the greater the recognition of mental illness behaviors. What is more relevant, amount or type of this factor?
The more highly EDUCATED a person is, the greater the recognition of mental illness behaviors. The type of education is more relevant than the amount of education. Individuals in more humanistic types of professions (lawyers, social workers, artists, teachers, nurses) are more likely to seek psychiatric assistance than accountants or business executives, for example.
True or False: Jewish people are less likely to seek psychiatric assistance than are people who are Catholic or Protestant.
False, more likely
Review Axis System, GAF scale & Therapeutic vs. Nontherapeutic Communication techniques handouts.
..
also review ch 4 especially p 66-72 for legal concepts
Review development and therapeutic communication p 111-113
What is the difference between assault and battery? Does harm or injury need to occur for these charges to be legitimate?
Assault- act that results in a person's genuine fear and apprehension that he or she will be touched without consent (threat of an act)
Battery- unconsented touch of another person
These charges can result when a treatment is administered to a client against his or her wishes and outside an emergency situation. Harm or injury are not necessary components for charges to be legitimate.
What is the goal of Milieu therapy?
to manipulate the environment so that all aspects of the client's hospital experience are considered therapeutic. Within this therapeutic community setting, the client is expected to learn adaptive coping, interaction, and relationship skills that can be generalized to other aspects of his or her life.