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63 Cards in this Set

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AIM ??
AIM for fitness

-aim for a healthy weight
-be hysically active everyday
Danger Zone
40-140F
CHO DIGESTION
-Monosacc's are the only form of carbs that are able to be absorbed.
-Most carb digstion occurs in the small intestine where panreatic aylase continues to break down starch
-Chemical digestion occurs as food mixes with digestive enzymes secretd by the pancreas and the small intestine
Metabolism
-after eating, blood glucose level rises causing the pancreas to secrete insulin which moves glucose into cells
-insulin and glucagons ae the major hormones responsible for regulation o blood glucose levels
Absorption
-actual movement of substance across the mucosal membrane
-glucose, fructoe, and galactose are absorbed thru the intestinal mucosa cells and travel to the liver by the hepatic portal vein
Glucose Functions
-6 Carbon molecule breaks into two 3 Carbon (PYRUVATE) to yield energy in the form of ATP. This is [GLYCOLYSIS]
-Acetate (2 Carbon) continues thru complex reactions such as the Kreb's Cycle and E-Transport Chain
-Goal: to produce energy, CO2, and H2O
-All digested CHO is 4cal/g
-Glucose is the body's preferred fuel b/c CHO does not leave an end product to be exceted (protein and fat do)
PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
-if adequate glucose is not avaiable, body uses dietary protein fo energy
-Adequate CHO intake spare protein from being used
-To efficiently burn fat for energy, glucose is needed w/our adequate glucose, ketone can form
-After energy needs are met, excess glucose can be converted to glycogen, usedto make nonessential amino acids, or coverted to fat and stored

1 protein= 1 g =4 kCl
Made of: C, H, O, N
15-20% of cals should be protein
DRV
Daily Referrance Value
-recommended daily intake for macronutrients: choleserol, Na, and K
Garlic
Herbal Supplement
-promote overall health
-Does prevent blood clots, arteriosclerosis, and lowers cholesterol
Build
Build a healthy Base
-let pyramid guid choices
-Choose variety of whole grains daily
-variety of fruits and veggies daily
-keep foods safe
Required on Food Label
Calories, Cals from fat, saturated fat, total fat, dietary fibers, protein, sugars, total CHO, sodium, cholesterol, and RDI (% of Vitamin A and C, iron, an Ca)
Serving Size of Milk Products
1 cup- milk/yogurt
1 slice cheese
1/2 cup ice cream
Serving Sizes of Grains
1 slice of bread
1/2 cup of rice/pasta
1 cup cereal
Serving Size for Meat and Protein
3oz meat (deck of cards)
1 tablespoon peanut butter
1 egg
1/3 cup dried beans
Serving Sizes of Fruits and veggies
1 medium fresh
3/4 cup juice
1/2 canned,cooked,chopped
1 cup leafy (salad)
1/4 cup dried
7 baby carrots
15 grapes
Serving Size of Fats and Sweet
1 tablespoon oil/dressing
2 small cookies
2x2 peice of cake
Colon (Large Intestine)
-major absorption site for WATER
-Unabsorbed material collect here
-Bacteria ferment remaining undigested food residue until secretion
Meat and Poultry Safety
165 F
AI
Adequate Intake
-due to lack of sufficient RDA data
Variety
Not one food contains all nutrients
GLUCOSE
(Dextrose)
[Monosaccharides]
-found naturally in fruits, veggies, honey,and corn syrup
-maily created by body (by starch and digestion)
-Dextrose is in the form given intravenously
FRUCTOSE
("fruit sugar")
[Monosaccharides]
-Found naturally in fruit, honey, and added to many fruits
-Crystalline Fructose (granulated): is commercially made from CORNSTARCH
-HFCS(high-fructose cornsyrup): made commercially by DEXTROSE
-used in soft drinks, fruit drinks, and baked goods
*Causes GI distress if present in large amounts in the intestines
GALACTOSE
[Monosaccharides]
-Not in appreciable amounts in food
-significantly combines with Glucose to form disaccharides Lactose
Refined Fibers
Protein, fiber, niacin, vitamin B6, panmotentic acid, starch, selenium
Moderation
All foods can fit
DV
Daily Value %
based on 2000 cal diet and RDI and DRI
Balance
breads, grains, cereals make up major bottom half of pyramid
Maltose
[Disaccharide]
-2 glucose molecules joined
-Not naturally found in foods
-aids starch digestion
Sucrose
("table sugar")
[Disaccharide]
-Fructose+Glucose
-Sweeter than Glucose
-not as sweet as Fructose
Reheating Safety
165 F
EAR
Estimated Average Requirement
-requirement for health of half of healthy people
Soluble Fibers
[Polysaccharides]
-Gums, pectins, some hemicellulose, and mucilages
-dissolve to gummy, viscous texture
-slow gastric emptying and movement of chyme through intestines
-Delay absorption of glucose in small intestine
-lowers elevated blood cholesterol
-fruits, oats, barley, and legumes
-Human digestive track lacks enzymes to digest fibers
Insoluble Fibers
[Polysaccharides]
-Includes Cellulose, many Hemicellulose, and Lignins
-Texture to food plants
-Increase Fecal Weight
-Transit time through intestines
-Prevent or release constipation
Fibers
[Polysaccharides]
-insoluble and soluble
-"roughage" or "residue"
-Structure in plants
-cannot be broken down to monosaccharides
-indigestible
Glycogen
[Polysaccharide]
-formed furing cell metabolism
-excess stored in liver and muscles
-liver glycogen breaks down and releases glucose into bloodstream between meals to maintain normal levels
-muscles do not share their supply
-no dietary source of glycogen
Starch
[Polysaccharide]
-Storage form of glucose in plants
-1000's of glucoses joined
-Found only in plant oods
-In grains, legume, and starchy veggies
-As fruit ripens starch converts to sugar
-As veggies ripen sugar converts to starch
Food Guide Pyramid
Variety
Balance
Moderation
Stomach
-churning, mixing, and acid turns food to semi-liquid paste [CHYME]
-acidic surroundng activates gastric enzymes to kill most food bacteria and promote absorptionof Ca+ and iron
-Liquid leaves stomach faster than solids, CHO faster than protein, and protein faster than fat
-usually 1-4 hrs, 6 hrs after high fat meal
DRI
Daily Referrance Intake
-requirement of nutriens for optimal health and prevention of diseases
Status Foods
-expensive
-rare
-special occasions
RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowance
*For Healthy People Only*
Required nutrients to prevent chronic disease
Protective Foods
-give seasoning or flavor
-Rich in nutrients (veggies, nuts, legumes)
Staple Foods
-inexpensive
-bland
-easy to prepare
-foundation of diet (bottom of pyramid)
Fat Portion of Diet
30% of diet
Choose
Choose Sensibly
-Diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderation total fats
-Choose beverages and food to moderate sugar intake
-Choose and prepare foods with less salt
-Alcohol in moderation
Lactose
("milk sugar")
[Disaccharide]
-natural in milk
-Glucose+Galactose
-Used as additive in many foods and drugs
-Inhances Ca+ and absorption
-promotes bacteria that produces vitamin K
-not sweet
Ginseng
Herbal Supplement
-increase mental allertness and improve energy
-*A stimulant
-*Must be used carefully
Echinacea
Herbal Supplement
-prevent flu's and cold's
-help relieve symptoms caused by bacteria viruses
St. John Wort
Herbal Supplement
-Depression
-still in study
Polysaccharides
Complex Carbohydrates
-starch, glycogen, and fiber
-not sweet b/c chains are too big for taste buds
Esophagus
-food is directed here by closure of the epiglottis
-no digestion or absorption occurs here
Complex Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides ("starches")
-glycogen
-starch
-fiber
Simple Carbohydrates
("sugars")
-Monosaccharides
-Disaccharides
Monosaccharides
[simple carbs]
(C6H12O6)
-6 Carbon
-12 Hydrogen
-6 Oxygen
Disaccharide
[simple carbs]
("double sugars")
-composed of 2 monosaccharides one of which is glucose
-disaccharides are digesed into a monosaccharide prior to absorption
UL
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
-highest risk of daily nutrients intake that poses no risk
-not recommended level of intake
Ginko Biloba
Herbal Supplement
-improve circulation and dementia
-*Does improve cirulation and may reduce dizziness and headaches
Mouth
-saliva moistens for chewing, swallowing, and digestion
-salivary amylase begins breakdown of starch to maltose
-starch travels through GI tract by [PERISTALSIS]
Digestion and Absorption
Mouth --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> Small intenstine --> Large intestine
Ginko Biloba
Herbal Supplement
-improve circulation and dementia
-*Does improve cirulation and may reduce dizziness and headaches
Carbohydrates
1g CHO = 4 kCals
50-60% of diet should be Carbs
Fiber Intake
-Daily recommended: 20-35g
-eat variety plant foods
-(2-3)+ whole grains daily
-(5)+ fruits and veggies daily
-(2-3) legumes /week
-cereal with (5)+ fibers/serving
ex) raisin bran
Small Intestine
-Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
-Chyme mixes with bile and pancreatic enzymes finish digestion (in Duodenum)
-Most nutrients absorbed in small intestine
-Lining of Small Intestine has 100's of folds covered by villi and microvilli (surface area)
-microvlli form brush border with digestive enzymes that complete digestion, and cells absorb nutrients