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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of blood and blood forming tissues is:

This includes:

bone marrow, blood, spleen, and lymph system.
A basic knowledge of hematology is useful to:
evaluate pts ability to transport oxygen and CO2, coagulate blood, and combat infections
Bone cell production is called:

Soft material that fills the central core of bones:

Bone Marrow
Which type of marrow actively produces blood cells:

Where is this found?
Red marrow.

Flat and irregular bones such as: (ends of them) pelvic bones, vertebrae, sacrum, sternum, ribs, flat cranial bones, and scapulae.
All 3 types of blood cells, develop from:
A common hematopoieitic stem cell with in the bone marrow.
Blood is a connective tissue that performs 3 what functions:
Transportation, regulation, and protection.
* Transportation of O2, nutrients, hormones, and waste products around the body
* Regulates F&E and acid base balance
* Protective role in its ability to coagulate and combat infections.
How much of the blood is plasma?

What is plasma mostly composed of?

Serum refers to:
55 %


Plasma minus clotting factors
About ___% of the blood is composed of formed elements, or blood cells.
45 %
2 primary functions of erythrocytes?

Erythrocytes are primarily composed of:
1)transports gases (O2 & CO2)
2)assists in maintaining
acid-base balance

The process of RBC production:
It's regulated by:
cellular oxygen requirements and general metabolic activity.
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by ___ and controlled by ___.
hypoxia & erythropoietin
A hormone synthesized and released by the kidney that stimulates the bone marrow to increase erythrocyte production
Nutrients essential for this:

protein, uiron, flate, B12, B2, B6.)
The lymph system assists with carrying fluid from ___ to ____.

Lymph allows ___ & ___ & certain ___ from the GI tract to be returned to the circ system.

What function of the lymph system helps prevent edema?
interstitial spaces to the blood.

Fats & proteins & hormones

lymph system returns interstitial fluid to the blood
When does lymphedema develop?

Examples of when?
When there's too much interstitial fluid or when something interferes with the reabsorption of lymph.

Aftter mastectomy or lumpectomy with dissection of axillary nodes.
Lymph capillaries differ from blood capillaries in that:

Lymphatic capillaries unite to form lymphatic vessels that carry all lymph fluid to either:
Lymph ones are slightly larger and do not contain valves.

the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct. From here they go into the subclavian veins in the neck.
Primary function of lymph nodes:

Superificial nodes can be:
Deep only seen by:
Filter bacteria and foreign particles carried by lymph.

The elderly is at a larger risk for problems with:
clotting, O2 transport, fighting infection, especialy during periods of increased demand. This results in diminished ability of an older adult to compensate for an acute or chronic illness.
T or F
Hgb levels begin to decrease in both men and women after middle age.

Platelets are affected by aging process?

A patient previously treated with chemotherapy agents, particularly alkylating agents, is at a higher risk for developing a secondary malignancy of leukemia or lymphoma.


Where are clotting factors producted?

Alcohol damgaes ___ & ___.

Platelet function & the liver
___, ___, & ___ are necessary for production of RBC's.
Iron, cobalamin, Folic acid
A primary lymph node may be a sign of:

Nodes that are enlarged and tender are usually associate with:
Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

an acute infection
Some possible causes of arthalgia:
autoimmune d/o, gout secondary to increased uric acid production, expanding bone marrow - leukemia,
IF a lymph node is paplable it should be:


Tender lymph nodes usually:
Hard or Fixed ones suggest:
small (.5-1 cm), mobile, firm, and nontender.

tender, hard, fixed, or enlarged.

result of inflammation
What is a reticulocyte?

Destruction of RBC's is called?

Whats the normal life span of a RBC?
Immature RBC.


120 days
Reticulocytes can develop into mature RBC's with ____ hours of release into circulation.

Hemolysis occurs in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen resulting in:

Increased bilirubin.
Where do leukocytes originate from?
stem cells within the bone marrow
Name the granulocytes:

Name the agranulocytes:
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

lymphocytes & monocytes (also referred to as mononuclear)
What's the primary function of granulocytes?
Primary phagocytic cells involved in acute inflammatory responses:
Mature neutrophil called:

Immautre neturophil called:

Neturophils account for __% of WBCS


Primary function of eosinophil?

Also defend against:

Esophinophils account for only ____% of all WBCs
Engulf antigen-antibody complexes formed during an allergic response.

Parasitic infections

Basophils make up less than __% of WBC's.

These cells have cytoplasmic granules that contain ___, ___, and ___ and play a part seen in ____ & ____ reactions.

heparin, serotonin, and histamine.
Allergic and inflammatory
Lymphocytes constiute __% to __% of WBC's.

Lymphocytes originate from stem cells in the bone marrow and form the basis of the ___ & ____ immune responses.

2 subtypes of these are:

Where do T cells originate from and where do they go to?

Cellular and humoral

B & T cells

bone marrow, thymus
Monocytes account for approximately __ - __% of WBCS

These are:

Potent phagocytic cells
Second type of WBC to arrive at the scene of an injury?

These are only present a short time before they migrate to the ___ and become ____.

Tissues, macrophages
Where do platelets originate from?

Life span of platelets?
stem cells within the bone marrow.

5-9 days
What 3 factors contribute to hemostasis?
vascular response, platelet response, & plasma clotting factors.
What is the most powerful enzyme in the coagulation process?

That does it do?

Converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Two ways anticoagulation may be achieved:
antithrombins and fibrinolysis
Antithrombins antagonize ___.


Endogenous heparin
Fibrinolysis results in dissolution of ____.
4 functions of the spleen:
hematopoietic function
filter function
immune function
storage function
What does the spleen store?

When does the spleen produce RBC's?

The spleen contains a rich supply of __ & __ to assist with immune function.
*Approximately 30% of platelet mass
*during fetal development.
*monocytes & lymphocytes
What is necessary for development of RBC's.
Iron, Cobalamin, and folic acid
Foods rich in iron:
liver, meat, eggs, whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals, potatoes, leafy green vegetables, dried fruits, legumes, and citrus fruits.
An increasing abd girth can be realated to:
an enlarged spleen, and enlarged liver, or abd bleeding.
A marked decrease in RBCs, WBCs, and platelets:

With this care should be dircted toward the mgmt of:

anemia, infection, hemorrhage
Hgb is low with:
anemai, hemorrhage, and states of hemodilution
Hgb is high with:
polycythemia or states of hemoconcentraction (dehydration)
The hematocrit represent the:
percentage of RBC compared with the total blood volume.
Elevations of WBC over 11,000/ul are assocaited with:

A count less than 4000/jl (leukopenia) is associated with
infection, inflammation, tissue injury or death, and malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma)

bone marrow depression or some types of leukemia
What happens when infections are severe?
More granulocytes are released from the bone marrow as a compensatory mechansim. Causing bands to be released.
A neutrophil count of less than 1000 cells/ul

A neturophil count of less than 500 cell/ul

Neutropenia can result from:

Severe nuetropenia

leukemia or bone marrow depression
Normal Platelet Count
150,000 to 400,000 ul
Normal Hgb
Women 12-16 g/dl
Men 13.5-18 g/dl
Normal Hct
Women 38-47%
Men 40-54%
Nomal RBC
Women 1-5 X 10^6/ul
Men 4.5-6 X 10^6/ul
HCT X 10
RBC X 10^6

Determination of relative size of RBC

82-98 fl
Hgb X 10
RBC X 10^6

Measurement of avg wt of hgb/RBC

27-33 pg
--- X 100

32-36% (.32-.36)
Normal WBC
WBC differential:
Neutrophils 50-70%
Eosiniphils 2-4%
Basophils 0-2%
Lyphocytes 20-40%
Monocytes 4-8%
Normal Platelets
150,000 to 400,000/ul
Increased sed rate is comon with:
acute and chronic inflammatory reactions when cell destruction is increased. Also in people with malignancy, myocardial infarction, and end-stage renal disease.
What test is used to evaluate the person's Rh status?
Normal PT
12-15 seconds
Normal INR
Normal APTT
30-45 seconds
* longer with use of heparin
Universal donor
Normal ESR
Women 1-20 mm in 1 hr
Men 1-15 mm in 1 hr
Reticulocyte count:
0.5-1.5% of RBC count
Normal Bilirubin level
Total: 0.2-1.3mg/dl
Direct: 0.1-0.3 mg/dl
Indirect: 0.1-1 mg/dl
The prefered method of checking deep lymph nodes?
The benefit gained from bone marrow examination is:

Preferred site of aspiration and biopsy.
a full evaluation of hematopoiesis.

posterior iliac crests
The hazard is greatest in aspiration procedures involving the:
Nsg responsbility with CT scan
ask about allergy to iodine if contrast is used
Nsg responsibility with MRI
Ask about metals and surgical Hx with staples plates and other metals. Instruct client must lay still in small chamber.
Nsg responsibility with Bone marrow biopsy:
Explain procedure to client, obtain signed consent form, analgesics. pressure dressing after procdure. Assess for bleeding
Nsg responsibility with Lymph node biopsy:
Explain procedure, obtain signed consent, sterile technique in dressing changes, assess for healing. Look for bleeding and edema.
An individual who lives at a high altitude may normally have an increased RBC count because:
Hypoxia caused by decreased atmospheric oxygen stimulates erythropoiesis.
Disorders such as myeloblastic leukemia that arise from myeloblast cells in the bone marrow will have the primary efect of causing:
decreased phagocytosis of bacteria
An anticoagulant such as coumadin that interferes with wht production of prothrombin will alter the clotting mechanism during:
activation of thrombin
When reviewing lab results of an 83 yo pt with an infection, the nurse would expect to find:
minimal leukocytosis
Mild anemia:

Moderate anemia:

Severe anemia:


Under 6