• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/159

Click to flip

159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypoactive bowel sounds
follow abdominal surgery or occur with inflammation of the peritoneum
bruits
vascular sounds (around umbilicous)
normal liver span
6-12 cm
hepatomegaly
enlarged liver span
Involuntary rigidity
constant, board-like hardness of the muscles
protective mechanism accompanying acute inflamation of peritoneum
lumbar lordosis
potbelly
mitral
(heart valve)
Left atrium to Left ventricle
tricuspid
(heart valve)
right atrium to right ventricle
Pulmonic
(semilunar valves)
Right ventricle to Pulmonary artery
Aortic
(semilunar valves)
Left ventricle to aorta
Left ventricle
stronger. pumps blood throughout entire body
Right Ventricle
Provides blood to lungs
sino-atrial node
60-100 bpm
atrioventricular node
40-60 bpm
Bundle of his and everything else
<40 bpm
Thrills
sensation of a purring cat
heaves
lifting of cardiac area
right side of heart
aortic
left side of heart
pulmonic
erbs point
tricuspid Mitrial
s1
closure of mitral and tricuspid valves
onset of systole
s2
closure of aortic and pulmonic valves
onset of diastole
murmur
caused by turbulent blood flow
"swoosh"
lub to dub
systole
dub to lub
diastole
causes of JVD
hypervolemia, heart failure, tricuspid regurgitation
How to assess abdomen
1. inspection
2. ausculation
3. percussion
4. palpation
ostomies
external
divert flow from urinary tract to skin
ex) colonostomy and illiostomy
sigmoid colon
where material stays until elimination
rectum
3 transverse folds of Houston
retain fecal material so its not passed with flatus
anal canal
last 3-4 cm of large intestine
internal anal sphincter
involuntary control
external anal sphincter
voluntary control
bright red stool
frank blood
lower in GI tract (rectal bleeding)
Black tarry stool
upper GI tract bleeding
just black stool
iron or bismuth ingestion
(Peptobuth)
grey/tan stool
obstructive jaundice
pale yellow, greasy, fatty stool
malabsorbtion syndromes
(celiac disease, cystic fibrosis)
mucous with blood and pus stool
ulcerative colitis, acute diverticulitis
maroon or bright red stool
diverticulitis
benign prostatic hypertrophy
testosterone converts to dihydrorosterone which leads to prostatic cell growth
acute bacterial prostatitis
caused by e. coli
clitoris
normal approx. 2 cm long and .5 cm in diameter
urethral meatus
slitlike, midline, free of discharge or redness.
size of a pea
vaginal introitus
(entrance)
pink, moist, discharge clear to white. free of fowl odor, patent, and without bulging
perineum
smooth, slightly darkened, possible episiotomy scar, no tears or lesions
urine
30 ml/hr pale yellow and clear is normal
Measure urine by:
Color: orange, amber, yellow, straw, hecituric (blood in urine)
carat
clarity
Patient positions for breast exam
sitting w. hands at side
sitting arms above head
sitting hands on hips, elbows out
sitting arms out leaning forward
Goniometer
protactor type instrument with 2 moveable arms to measure the angle of skeletal joint during ROM
sphygmomanometer
blood pressure cuff
measures strength
approach to musculoskeletal
inspection
palpation
ROM
muscle testing
RA
hands deformed
Gout
build up of uric acid which settles in joints
osteoarthritis
loose lubrication in joints therefore bones rub
claudication
cramping in leg/feet due to poor circulation
steppage or footdrop
slap foot on floor
(like little kids)
antalgic
majority of weight on one leg
trendelenburg
waddling
hip dysplasia
short leg
limp
spastic hemiplegia
extension of one lower extremity, foot inversion, arm flexed @ elbows, wrist and fingers
ex) cerebral palsy
scissors
adduction at knee
short slow steps
stiff jerky gait
(knees together)
cerebral ataxia
gait broad, uncoordinated, appears to stagger
(brain injury)
Sensory ataxia
stance broad, lifts feet high and slaps on floor(watched foot placement
Brain isnt sensing foot on floor
festinating
shuffling
(Parkinsons)
Apraxic
intact motor but unable to initiate walking
non-weight bearing
does not bear weight on affected extremity
Touchdown
(weight bearing)
foot on floorbut no wt distributed to extremity
Partial weight bearing
bears 30-50% of wt on affected extremity
Fascialation
(invol. muscle movement)
visible twitching, stimulated by tapping on muscle
(happens when someones getting tetnus)
fibrillation
(invol. muscle movement)
quiver
(common with heart problems)
spasm
(invol. muscle movement)
sudden muscle contraction
cramp turns to spasm that is long and painful
tremors
(invol. muscle movement)
continuous shaking due to muscle contraction
(parkinsons)
Tic
(invol. muscle movement)
sudden, rapid, spasm of upper trunk, face or shoulders, often repetitive
subluxation
partial dislocation
dorsiflexion
flexing foot so toes toward chest
plantar flexion
moving the foot so toes move away from chest
PROTRACTION
move a body part anteriourly along its own axis
retraction
moving a body part posterior along its own axis
gliding
one joint surface moves over another joint surface in a circular or angular nature
muscle strength scale
5/5 normal
4/5 good- complete ROm with mod resistance
-----
3/5 fair-complete ROM w/o manual resistance
2/5 poor- complete ROM with only joint support
1/5 trace- muscle contract but in sufficient to move joint
0/5 none
jaw
open 3-6 cm
side to side 1-2 cm
cervical spine
flexion
hyperextension
lateral bending
rotation
elbows
flexion
extension
supination
pronation
wrist
extension
hyperextension
flexion
metacarpophalangeal
hperextensin
flexion
hips
flexion
internal rotation
external rotation
abduction
adduction
hyperextension
knees
flexion
extension
Peritoneum
lining of abdominal cavity
Parietal perituneum
covers wall of cavity
Visceral perituneum
covers organs
so breast tissue is spread evenly over chest wall
client lays suppine with the ipsilateral arm behind the head
lateral recumbent position aids in detecting:
heart murmurs
dorsal recumbent
used for abdominal assessment
scoliosis
lateral spine curvature
kyphosis
exaggeration of the posteriorcurvature of the thoracic spine
common in older adults
Fibrocystic breast disease
lumpy, painful breasts, sometimes nipple discharge. Lumps are soft, well differentiated and movable
Paratic ileus
abdominal assessment reveals absence of sounds indicating cessation of gastrointestinal motility
papanicolaou smear
test to screen for cervical nd vaginal cancer
ischemia
block of blood flow to the heart
infarction
necrosis (dead) of heart tissue
Angina
how ischemia is manifested (chest pain)
CAD
Coronary Artery Disease
HTN
Hypertension
MI
Myocardial infarction
CVA
Cerebral Vascular Accident
AAA
abdominal aortic aneurysm
CHF
Congestive Heart Failure
Non cardiac specific
DM (diabetes), bleeding disorders, CVA, thyroid disease
Diabetes
impacts blood vessels by vasoconstriction
Neuropathy- loss of sensation, less able to feel chest pain associated with ischemia
cardiac necrosis
poor muscle functioning of the heart
Risk factors of heart disease
HTN, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, physical inactivity
Rheumatic fever
causes damaged heart valves
Dyspnea
difficult breathing
orthopnea
breath sitting with pillows
paroxsysmal nocturnal dyspnea
wakes up feeling robbed of breath
syncope
fainting
palpitation
skipped beats or fluttering
peripheral edema
edema in lower limbs
precordium
anterier surface of the body overlying the heart and great vessels
Point of maximal impulse
mitral area
where pulsations may be seen in half of adult population
cardiomegaly
enlarged heart
bell
low-pitched sounds
3rd and 4th heart sounds
aortic
s2> s1
pulmonary
s2>s1
tricuspid
s1>s2
mitral
s1>s2
murmur
no clear lub-dub, muffled, softened, prolonged heart sounds
can be caused by turbulent blood flow
pericardial friction rub
caused by the rubbing of parietal layers of cardium
fibrosis of heart valves
hardening of heart valves
organs in RUQ
liver, gallbladder, pancreas head
portion of kidney/adrenal gland, section of ascending and transverse colon
organs in LUQ
lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, portion of kidney and adrenal gland
section of transverse and descending colon
organs in RLQ
Appendix, lower portion of kidney, ureter, ovary, spermatic cord
organs in LLQ
sigmoid colon, section of descending colon, lower portion of kidney, ureter, ovary, spermatic cord
dysphagia
trouble swallowing
dysuria
painful urination
scaphoid
concave
protuberant
occurs in pregnant women
fibroid
tumor
peristalsis
movement of food in intestines
borborygmamy
normal hyperactive bowel sounds
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoreum
Mcburneys point
RLQ, assessing for appendicitis
heptomegaly
enlarged liver
asites
fluid in abdomen
Ligament
connect bone to bone at joint level
encircling ligamets
in the hip
parallel ligaments
in the knee
bursae
fluid-filled sacs
Synarthrosis
immoveable joints
Amphiarthrosis
slightly moveable
(vertibrae)
diarthrosis
freely moveable
hemiplegia
right or left is paralyzed
(brain related)
atony
no tone in muscle
ankylosing spondylitis
chronic inflammation of the spine
lumbosacral radiocoropathy
radiated pain down legs
due to herniated lumbar disk
lumbar stenosis
"choking": of spinal cord in lumbar area
(Pain, tingling, numbness)
temporumandibular joint syndrome (TJS)
inflammation or pain of joint
fibromyalgia
chronic syndrome of specific muscle weakness, bone pain and fatigue
Rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease with chronic joint pain