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250 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
events that most people normally experience at about the same age; strong relations to chronological age
Age Related Normative Events
biological events that most people experience at same age, regardless of culture (ex. Teething, walking, puberty)
Normative Maturation Events
each age cohort is exposed to a segment of history and because the society changes over time, the members of different age cohorts act in different ways (Great Depression, WWII)
Normative History-graded Influences
unexpected events that either don’t happen to most people or happen at an usual age; this is responsible for our differences and can be biological (ex. Cancer, divorce, lottery)
Non-Normative Events
those that affect a specific group of people who share a common time in history
Cohort Related Events
the branch of psychology that deals with how individuals change with time while remaining in some respects the same.
Developmental Psychology
Four goals of Developmental Psychology
To DESCRIBE the changes that typically occur across the life span.
To EXPLAIN these changes-to specify the determinants of developmental change.
To PREDICT developmental changes.
To be able to use their knowledge to intervene in the course of events in order to CONTROL them.
all intertwined in every aspect of development
Domains of Development
3 Domains of Development
Physical Dev
Cognitive Dev
Emotional-social Dev
involves the changes that occur in a person’s body, including weight and height; in the brain, heart, and other organ structures and processes; and in skeletal, muscular, and neurological features that affect motor skills.
Physical Dev
those changes that occur in mental activity, including changes in sensation, perception, memory, thought, reasoning, and language.
Cognitive Dev
changes in an individual’s personality, emotions, and relationships with others.
Emotional-social Dev
Processes of Development
takes place through metabolic processes from within. There is an increase in size as well. Organism takes in a variety of substances, breaks them down into their chemical components, and then reassembles them into new materials. This refers to an increase in the number of cells.
concerns the more or less automatic unfolding of biological potential in a set, irreversible sequence. Refers to the development of organs and limbs in relation to their ability to function. These are independent of environmental events
more or less permanent modification in behavior that results from the individual’s experience in the environment. This occurs throughout the whole lifespan and is dependent on both growth and maturation, which underlie a person’s readiness to learn.
To understand the context, we refer to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach to development. He examines the mutual accommodations between the developing person and these changing contexts in terms of four levels of environmental influence: the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem.
Context of Development:
the study of developmental influences must include the person’s interaction with the environment, the person’s changing physical and social settings, the relationship among those settings, and how the entire process is affected buy the society in which the settings are embedded. Allows us to view development as a nested arrangement of structures, each contained within the next.
Ecological Approach
consists of the network of social relationships and physical settings in which a person is involved everyday (school, family, church, peers, etc.)
consists of the interrelationships among the various settings in which
the developing person is immersed (between the micro and exo)
an environment that is external to the developing person and consists of social structures that directly or indirectly affect a person’s life (mass media, extended family, gov agencies, educational system)
consists of the overarching cultural patterns of a society that are expressed in family, educational, economic, political, and religious institutions (cultural beliefs and ideologies)
we are born with a blank stare, inheriting only the ability to learn from out environment. Development is almost entirely dependent on learning (nurture).
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus, after being paired with a unconditioned stimulus, begins to trigger a response to similar to that normally triggered by the unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
the assumption that we naturally associate events that occur in sequence
not conditioned (ex. The loud noise because the fear reaction to the loud noise is innate and thus not learned)
Unconditioned Stimulus
the response to the unconditioned stimulus (fear of the loud noise)
Unconditioned Response
one that doesn’t elicit any emotional response (people learn to associate this with a second stimulus that always (unconditionally) elicits an emotional response (ex. White rat)
Neutral Stimulus
the rat becomes this because Albert will eventually react to the rat the way he reacts to the loud noise since they are introduced together all the time
Conditioned Stimulus
the fear to the rat
Conditioned Response
we learn to do and what not to do. We tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded and tend to not repeat acts that are not rewarded.
Operant Conditioning
a rewarding stimulus such as attention or money that is presented after a response. This strengthens the response.
Positive Reinforcement
doing a behavior that turns off an unpleasant stimulus (child may clean room to quiet a nagging parent). Behavior has been increased in order to withdraw an aversive stimulus after the response is emitted.
Negative Reinforcement
occurs after the wrong behavior occurs and is designed to decrease or stamp out the bad behavior.
we learn from many types of models. Some things are learned through direct observation. Other things are learned through symbolic models such as verbal instruction or TV.
Social Learning Theory:
imitating to learn
the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentials, etc, people have an inborn tendency to become self-actualized
the degree to which we think we can be effective in a given situation
the process of understanding the world by fitting it into our preexisting schemas
revising existing schemas or adding new schemas
an especially joyous and exciting moment
Peak Experiences
higher levels aren’t influential unless lower ones have been met (see triangle)
Hierarchy of Needs
therapist like; complete acceptance of the person, regardless of what the client thinks or feels.
Unconditional Positive Regard
we are how we are because of how our parents treated us and raised us
you were of worth (value) when you did things they approved of and worthless when you did things they disapproved of.
Conditions of Worth
tying to live up to what others want you to be, denying yourself from true feelings
strands of DNA in the nuclei of cells that occur in pairs and carry genetic information (each of us has 46 where half are from mother and half from father)
each of us has how many of these where half are from mother and half from father
complex molecule running the length of each chromosome that forms the genetic code.
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
units of hereditary transmission made of protein and DNA that are strung along the length of each DNA molecule
produces identical twins because two babies share the same zygote
one zygote
two zygotes: produces fraternal twins because two babies has an entirely different zygote
sex cells and each has 23 unpaired chromosomes
specific forms of genes (for example, at the locus that determines the amount of hair people have on their legs, you might get two different kinds of alleles; a hairy leg allele from your father and a non hairy from your mother)
genetic makeup
actual gene expression
same: if both alleles for a gene/trait are the same
different: when two alleles are different
An allele that will be expressed phenotypically when paired with another allele
Dominant Allele
An allele that will not be expressed phenotypically when paired with a dominant allele. Recessive alleles are expressed only when they are paired with a similar recessive allele.
Recessive Allele
chemical changes in the genetic code leading to changes in the genotype
birth defect
Congenital Effect
defects that are the result of genes that appear on the X chromosome, but not the Y
Sex-Linked Defects
agents that increase the incidence of genetic defects or produce malformations in the course of prenatal development
A form of Down’s syndrome in which a part of all of one of the 21st chromosomes is in the wrong location. Instead of pairing off with the other 21st chromosome, it has attached to another chromosome pair (usually to chromo 14)
zygote journeys through the fallopian tube to the uterus
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life)
Journey takes 6-10 days, zygote multiplies like crazy, within seven days the one cell fertilized egg to a ball of 100-150 cells called a blastocyst
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life)
The blastocyst forms small, burr-like tentacles called tendrils
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life)
Mother’s uterus becomes engorged with blood so that the uterus can nourish and sustain a developing embryo
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life):
Implantation occurs when the tendrils tap the mother’s blood supply by burrowing into the uterine wall, an action that is critical for two reasons.
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life):
It allows the blastocyst to take in vital nourishment from the mother’s blood
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life):
It allows the blasocyst to secrete the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin into the mother’s blood stream (this signals the brain and the pituitary gland to stop the mother from menstruating).
Period of the Zygote (The first two weeks of life):
The trophoblast (outer layer) develops into the placenta, the umbilical cord, and amniotic sac
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
The tendrils that burrowed into the lining of the uterus thicken and become the placenta (an organ in which small blood vessels from the mother and the embryo intertwine to take nutrients and oxygen to the embryo and to remove wastes from the embryo’s bloodstream)
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months:
Embryo joined to umbilical cord (structure with two arteries and one vein that transport blood between the embryo and then placenta)
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Mother’s and embryo’s blood never mix (semi permeable membrane separates the two)
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
The embryo is cushioned and suspended within the amniotic sac ( a watertight bag that surrounds the embryo and contains amniotic fluid)
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Most rapid growth stage: baby’s size will increase two million percent
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Cephalocaudal: the fact that physical development usually starts at the head and then moves down the body until it reaches the toes.
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Proximodistal: refers to the fact that physical development usually occurs in the middle of the body before it occurs in the periphery (from center to moving outward)
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Develops in order of: head, CNS, hear, and inner organs, next are arms, legs, hands, and feet
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Embryo’s gender is established
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months:
Heart begins to beat and blood is pulsing through the body
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Brain has dominance over the embryo’s other developing systems
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
Liver manufactures red blood cells
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months:
Is a fetus with nose, mouth, ears, eyes, toes, fingers, arms, legs, and external genitalia
Period of the Embryo: From 2 Weeks Through 2 Months
The organs and physiological systems mature to the point that the fetus can survive in the outside world
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
bones harden, muscles develop, and genitalia become distinct as female or male
In third month
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
mother can feel baby moving and the fetal heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope
In fourth month
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
basic reflexes necessary for survival outside the uterus are apparent
In the fifth month
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
Sucking, swallowing, hiccupping, the Babinski effect, nail hardening, thickening of skin, sweat glands form, eyebrows, eyelashes, scalp hair, lanugo.
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
eyes developed and fetus can open and close them
In sixth month
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months:
the fetus reaches the age of viability when the organs and physiological systems of most fetuses are mature enough for the fetus to survive outside the womb.
In the 24-25 month
Period of the Fetus: 3 to 9 Months
Parts of the Brain
Most primitive part of brain and most necessary for survival
Governs such necessary functions as breathing, hearth rhythms, body temps, reflexes, movement, balance, coordination, attention, and sleep.
Contains the neurological pathways that connect the left side of brain to the right side
Serves as a relay station for almost all the information coming in and out of the cerebral hemispheres
Relays to the higher cognitive centers what the rest of the body needs and relays to the rest of the body what to do to meet those needs
Comprised of two halves (right and left: the two cerebral hemispheres)
Control our highest intellectual functions
Center of creativity and inhibitions, our plans for the future, and our abilities to implement them
Allows us to learn, speak, read, think, realize dreams, and dictate actions
Inhibits limbic system
takes care of the moment to moment details necessary for the body to survive. It sends orders to the workers in the CNS and responds to simple requests from these workers. Its decisions are limited to reflexes that adjust and regulate basic body functions and movement
The hind brain
doesn’t deal with the mundane tasks of second to second survival. It deals with the task of day to day survival by meeting the body’s demands for food, water, and sex with threats from the immediate environment.
The midbrain
is concerned wit the big, long term picture. Not only doesit want to ensure moment to moment and day to day, but also future survival. Part of that survival is to learn about the environmental and how to function within it.
The forebrain
the part of the midbrain that plays a major role in emotions and primitive urges like hunger, thirst, lust, and aggression.
Limbic System
the progressive cellular and bodily deterioration that culminates in death
A theory of aging based on the finding that because of age-related genetic changes in cells, the immune system beings to perceive the body’s own cells as “foreign” and tries to destroy these cells. This makes older adults more vulnerable to disease and stress.
Autoimmume Theory of Aging:
the ability to perceive distance
Depth Perception
a group of hormones that promote the development of the female reproductive tract and female physical characteristics
the time between conception and delivery
a reflex in which an infant grasps anything placed in its hands
Grasping Reflex
a hormone that brings about physical growth by stimulating protein synthesis and causing the body’s cells to divide
Growth Hormone
powerful and highly specialized chemicals that are usually produced by glands and circulate in the blood. Hormones interact with cells capable of receiving and responding to the hormonal message
the onset of menstruation
cessation of a women’s menstrual cycle and the end of female fertililty
A reflex in response to a loud sound or jarring, or to a sudden head or body drop of a few inches. The arms are thrown out in extension and then toward each other in a convulsive manner; hands are fanned out at first and then clenched tightly
Moro Reflex
The pair of female reproductive glands in which the ova and female sexual hormones are reproduced
Mature female sex cell
The master gland, that in conjunction with the hypothalamus regulates the activity of all other glands
Pituitary Gland
The capacity of brain cells to work on a variety of tasks
the male and female genital tracts
Primary sex characteristics
The time of sexual maturation: The fifth stage in Erikson’s theory between ages 11 and 18, during which a person resolves issues pertaining to identity versus roles confusion
A reflex in which the head is turned toward a nipple or other object touched lightly to the infant’s cheek. The infant opens its mouth and tries to suck the object (sucking reflex)
Rooting Reflex
non-reproductive sex traits such as breasts and pubic hair
Secondary sex characteristics
a grayish-white sticky mixture discharged from the urethra of the male during ejaculation; contains the sperm and seminal fluid
an infant’s reflex to suck anything that is placed in its mouth
Sucking Reflex
the male reproductive organs responsible for the production of sperm
a class of male hormones
a theory proposed by Wilson that aging is the result of genetic damage caused by the accumulation of environmental insults.
Wear and Tear Theory of Aging
the lowest level of stimulation that can be consciously detected
Absolute Threshold
to focus one’s thoughts on a specific idea or object
Manageable and meaningful unit of information that permits groupings of information to be easily encoded, stored, and retrieved
the process of putting together pieces of information to form or increase the size of a memory chunk
A conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairings with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response.
Classical Conditioning
the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected
Difference Threshold
a sensory memory for sound
Echoic Memory
a method of getting information from short term memory by making information meaningful by thinking about it and relating it to other things that you know
Elaborative Rehearsal
The process by which information is put into memory, through transduction of an experience into electrochemical energy for neutral representation
Memory for specific events, objects, and situations
Episodic Memory
In classical conditioning, the process of reducing the likelihood of a conditioned response to a conditioned response to a conditioned stimuli by withholding the unconditioned stimuli
in classical conditioning and operant conditioning, the fact that a response learned in one setting may be elicited in a similar setting
the decrease in responsiveness as a result of repeated presentation of a stimulus.
a visual sensory memory
Iconic Memory
an approach that emphasizes that learning and remembering
declarative knowledge involves several stage of information processing.
Information-processing Approach
the memory storage system that keeps a relatively permanent record of info.
Long-term memory
info is repeated for the purpose of being maintained in short term memory. Once repetition ceases, the information is forgotten.
Maintenance Rehearsal
imitating another person’s behavior
removal of an aversive stimulus after a desired response to increase the likelihood that that response will occur again
Negative Reinforcement
a conditioning procedure in which the probability that an organism will emit a response is increased or decreased by the subsequent delivery of reinforcer of punisher
Operant Conditioning
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
presentation of a rewarding or pleasant stimulus after a desired response to increase the likelihood that the response will recur.
Positive Reinforcement
transferring info from long term memory to short term memory
the skill of attending to relevant info and ignoring irrelevant info
Selective Encoding
a memory of concepts and meanings
Semantic Memory
the raw sensory info received through our sense organs
the first level of earning which a person senses the info to be learned
Sensory Level
the mechanism that performs initial encoding and brief storage of stimuli
Sensory Memory
the memory storage system that temporarily holds information for immediate short term use. Information may be recently acquired or retrieved from long term memory. Also called working memory
Short Term Memory
the level of stimulation required before a person can detect that a stimulus is present
same as short term memory
Working Memory
According to Jean Piaget, the process by which new concepts and experiences modify existing structures and behaviors; revising and adding to existing schematas.
In Piaget’s theory, the process by which new concepts and experiences are incorporated into existing mental frameworks (schemas)
How a process that is, at first consciously controlled (such as driving a stick-shift car) becomes automatic
A theoretical approach that focuses on how cognitive development unfolds in a stagelike sequence that is uniform for all people. Development is an inborn, spontaneous process that continually adds, modifies, and reorganizes the individual’s structures.
Cognitive Developmental Theory
The four causes for this cognitive development in Piaget’s ideas are
social interaction, maturation, experience, and process of equilibration.
In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, analytical intelligence (the ability to use memory and to reason analytically and it contains three types of processes:
Componential Analytical Intelligence
three types of processes of Componential Analytical Intelligence
1) knowledge acquisition 2) executive 3) performance
Used to acquire information and to represent information mentally. These are learning strategies including things such as paying attention to relevant information, as well as making connections between newly learned information and information already stored in memory.
Knowledge Acquisition
Manage your knowledge acquisition components. Plans what to do, what the problem is, what steps are involved, and figuring out how much time and energy should be spent on each step. They also check to see that the pan was properly carried out.
the workers; include many abilities such as being able to add, being able to reason logically, and being able to read the problem. Most IQ tests test this ability to quickly and accurately perform fairly simple mathematical and reasoning tasks.
Biological processes play a strong role in cognitive development. The biological process of maturation determines when cognitive development can occur. The biological process of equilibration motivates people to actively explore the world. It motivates people to 1) assimilate by fitting new experiences into their existing views of the world and to 2) accommodate by changing their views to fir new experiences. Through four stages, we develop a different way of thinking
Summary of Piaget’s Core Concepts
To form schemata of the physical world
Sensorimotor (Ages 0 to 2):
Begin to understand the relationships among these objects and yourself
Sensorimotor (Ages 0 to 2):
Grasped the idea of object permanence (that people and things really exist even when they cannot be sensed)
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
Can engage in symbolic thought
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
the use of mental symbols
symbolic thought
Magical Thought: cannot distinguish between the concrete world and the world of imagination
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
Animistic thought: the belief that inanimate objects have thoughts, feelings and life.
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
Nominal Realism: the belief that the object’s name is a real part of characteristic of the object
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
Phenomenalistic Causality: children believe that if two things happen together, that one caused the other to occur
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
Egocentric Thought: the inability to separate one’s own perspective from the perspective of others.
Preoperational Thought (Ages 2 to 7):
cannot distinguish between the concrete world and the world of imagination
Magical Thought
the belief that inanimate objects have thoughts, feelings and life.
Animistic thought
the belief that the object’s name is a real part of characteristic of the object
Nominal Realism
children believe that if two things happen together, that one caused the other to occur
Phenomenalistic Causality
the inability to separate one’s own perspective from the perspective of others.
Egocentric Thought
Can perform operations, but only on physical objects
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
Operations are mental, logical manipulations of objects that are reversible.
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
By retracing steps taken to get from A to B, one can mentally go back from B to A
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
First start doubting Santa because they realize that it is impossible for him to be everywhere at once.
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
Beginning of quantitative thought and can put things in chronological order
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
Conservation: recognition that quantity is a constant characteristic of certain objects
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
recognition that quantity is a constant characteristic of certain objects
Class inclusion problems: understands that a specific set of objects is also a subset of a more general category.
Concrete Operations (Ages 7 to 11):
understands that a specific set of objects is also a subset of a more general category.
Class inclusion problems
Shifted from thinking about the actual to thinking about the possible
Formal Operations (Ages 12 to adult
The ability to perform mental operations on operations. Abstract thought is a major characteristic of this stage.
Formal Operations (Ages 12 to adult
There are two kinds of abstract thinking:
Propositional Logic
thinking about thinking
kinda of formal logic you would learn in a logic class; forming a logical conclusion based on combining two or more hypothetical statements
Propositional Logic
Have a better ability to understand figures of speech, have an expanded sense of time and space, and be more conscious of two sets of abstract, hypothetical events: ideas and possibilities.
Formal Operations (Ages 12 to adult
the ability to see the big picture, to have insight, and to see old problems in new ways, and to apply old solutions to new problems.
Experiential Intelligence:
included logical and mathematical thinking, as well as scientific thinking
Logical mathematical Intelligence
the ability to use words
Linguistic Intelligence
the ability to form a mental model of a spatial world and to be able to maneuver and operate using that model.
Spatial Intelligence
the ability to produce and appreciate music
Musical Intelligence
the ability to skillfully coordinate the body the body’s movements to achieve a given objective.
Bodily- Kinesthietic Intelligence
the ability to understand other people- what motivates them, how they work, and how to work cooperatively with them.
Interpersonal Intelligence
the ability to know oneself and to use this self-knowledge effectively. Knows own strengths, limitations, and weaknesses.
Intrapersonal Intelligence
the unspoken rules that help us adapt or get ahead.
Contextual and Tacit Knowledge
similar to what people call real-world intelligence, practical intelligence, cleverness, or street smarts. Seem to know how to get what they want.
Contextual Intelligence
an index of developmental level used for infants and young children with an average of 100
Developmental Quotient DQ
an index of an individual’s performance on a standardized test of intelligence relative to the performance of others his or her age. (mental age/chronological age X 100)
Intelligence Quotient IQ
our capacity to use new and unique kinds of thinking to solve unfamiliar problems, is determined mostly through heredity. A type of intelligence that includes abstract, nonverbal reasoning, and problem solving skills, and reflects the ability to deal with novel situations
Fluid Intelligence
what some people would call expertise and is similar to what some call wisdom. It is factual knowledge acquired through education and experience, and it is useful for solving familiar problems. Intelligence that includes verbal skills and mechanical knowledge and reflects the ability to handle well learned information in familiar situations.
Crystallized Intelligence
a mental representation of an event
the ability to form a mental model of a spatial world and to be able to maneuver and operate using that model.
Spatial intelligence
the belief that declines in test performance associated with age can be largely reversed
Plasticity Theory
a structured system of symbols that have socially agreed upon meanings. These symbols may be sounds (as in speech), written symbols ( as in reading and writing), or gestures 9 as in sign language). Although it is a form of communication, not all forms of communication qualify as it.
Language is distinguished by many properties:
Functional Properties
Structural Properties
things that only human language has the ability to do. Aspects of communication unique to human language, including displaced reference, productivity, and prevarication
Functional Properties
the ability to refer to objects and events that are not physically present. This includes referring to things in the past and future, as well as communicating about things removed from our sensory realm.
Displaced Reference
the capacity to produce novel messages
the ability to lie
complex rules that govern the way sounds and words can be put together.
Structural Properties
the structural rules of language
Languages four structural properties
Phonological Rules
Morphological Rules
Syntactic Rules
Semantic Rules
rules governing which sounds are part of the language and which sounds can be put together
Phonological Rules
rules governing whether a group of sounds is a word (vocab rules)
Morphological Rules
rules governing the order in which words can be put together to make meaningful sentences
Syntactic Rules
rules determining what a statement means
Semantic Rules
begins at birth and ends at about age 1 with the onset of patterned speech
The Prelinguistic Period (Ages 0 to 1):
not able to speak, nor able to understand speech
The Prelinguistic Period (Ages 0 to 1):
has acquired several abilities necessary for language development
The Prelinguistic Period (Ages 0 to 1):
this ability to hear will facilitate the development of language comprehension (receptive function) and the ability to produce language (productive function)
The Prelinguistic Period (Ages 0 to 1):
distinguish voices and can differentiate from sounds and speeches
Receptive Function:
can distinguish between many phonemes and even passages
Receptive Function:
Productive Function;
- three stages:
begins at birth, most often do this because hungry, pain, fear, etc. It communicates and also helps speech development by providing an awareness of lips, mouth, etc.
start at end of firth month, produce an array of vowel sounds over and over again, seem to do this when content. Like crying, the onset of it is biologically determined. Evolution of it depends on biological maturation rather than on environmental stimulation.
starting around 6 months of age, produce a great number of clearly articulated vowels and consonants, produce these sounds in a random mix and can even imitate adults. Trying to get attention and be included in social interaction, as well as when they are excited. Eventually begin to only use phonemes that they here and get rid of useless ones.
begins when a baby says first word and replace their babbling with patterned speech:
Linguistic Period (Ages 1 onward
meaningful speech
patterned speech
greatest growth in language development will happen early in lifespan
Linguistic Period (Ages 1 onward
Has three dramatic periods of growth:
Holophrastic Speech: the one word stage
Telegraphic Stage
Beginning of complex speech
Linguistic Period (Ages 1 onward):
Linguistic Period (Ages 1 onward)
Has three dramatic periods of growth:
Holophrastic Speech: the one word stage
Telegraphic Stage
Beginning of complex speech
the use of one word to convey the information usually contained in whole phrase or sentence. Often uses overextension (use of one word to convey many different things) and underextension (the use of a single word in a highly restricted way).
- By age two is combining to make two word fragments
Holophrastic Speech: the one word stage: