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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Socially transmitted knowledge of values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a particular group that guides their thoughts and behaviors
Visible and Invisible Components
Visible—easily seen: clothing, jewelry, charms, hairstyles
Invisible—less observable: Value belief system that drives visible practices
Cultural Processes
-Enculturation: socializing into one’s primary culture as a child
-Acculturation: adapting to and adopting a new culture
-Assimilation: giving up one’s cultural identity for the dominant culture
-Biculturalism: identify equally with two cultures
Cultural Processes (con't)
Cultural Backlash: the culture is rejected after negative experience
Transcultural Nursing
-Comparative study of cultures to understand similarities and differences across human groups
-Goal: to provide culturally congruent care: that fits the people’s valued life patterns and set of meanings
Transcultural Nursing (con't)
-Culturally congruent care distinct from meanings and values of professional healthcare
-Discovering the client’s culture care values, meanings, beliefs and practices as they relate to nursing and healthcare requires nurses to assume the role of learners of client’s culture and copartners with clients and families in defining the character of meaningful and beneficial care
Cultural Competence
(remember: A.S.K.E.D.)
Cultural awareness
Cultural skills
Cultural knowledge
Cultural encounters
Cultural desire
Cultural Competence (con't)

Cultural Competence (con't)

Adopt these five characteristics to provide culturally competent care -
-CULTURAL AWARENESS: an in depth self exam of one’s own background recognizing biases and prejudices and assumptions about other people.
-CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE: is obtaining sufficient comparative knowledge of diverse groups, including health beliefs, indigenous values, care practices, worldview and biocultural ecology.
-CULTURAL SKILLS: include assessment of social, cultural and biophysical factors influencing treatment and care of clients.
-CULTURAL ENCOUNTERS: involve engagement in cross cultural interactions that can provide learning of other cultures and opportunities for effective intercultural communication development.
-CULTURAL DESIRES: motivation and commitment to caring that moves an individual to learn from others, accept the role as learner, be open and accepting of cultural differences and build upon cultural similarities.
Cultural Conflicts
-Ethnocentrism: tendency to hold one’s own way of life as superior to others

-Cultural Imposition: using one’s own values and lifeways as the absolute guide in dealing with clients and interpreting their behaviors
Cultural Context of Health and Healing
Western vs Eastern Cultures
- (W)Biomedical cause
- (E)Supernatural
- (W)Scientific, high tech,organ specific
- (E)Naturalistic, Holistic, Mixed body systems
- (W)specialty specific, Pharmacological, Surgery
- (E)Holistic, Herbal/biomedical/religious
- (W)Uniform standards & qualifications
- (E)apprentiship, not uniform, reputation established
-(W) Self-care, Self-determination
- (E) caring provided by others, group reliance & interdependence
Cultural Healing Modalities
-Externalizing Systems: cosmological and social factors
-Internalizing Systems: (Internalizing) scientific and techno societies: looking internally
Health Disparities
Social Factors
Cultural Practices
Categories of Cultural Healers
-Naturalistic Practitioners attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that alter equilibrium

-Personalistic Practitioners believe that illness is caused by active influence of an external agent. Focus on relationships with others and deities
Cultural and Life Transitions
Newborn care
Grief and loss
Cultural and Life Transitions (con't)
By examining how a culture approaches significant life events we will get a glimpse of cultures' meanings and expressions.
Cultural Assessment

Cultural Assessment (con't)
Learn your practice area: who is there, what cultures
Consider Census data
Ask questions
Establish relationships
Cultural identity/ethnohistory
Biocultural history
Social organization
Socioeconomic status
Language and communication
Religion and spirituality
Caring beliefs and practices
Experience with health care system
Nursing Decision and Action Modes
-Cultural care preservation or maintenance
-Cultural care accommodation or negotiation
-Cultural care repatterning or restructuring
Socialization into one's primary culture as a child is known as:
Enculturation. The processes of enculturation and acculturation facilitate cultural learning. Socialization into one's primary culture as a child is known as enculturation. The process of adapting to and adopting a new culture is acculturation.
Assimilation results when an individual:
gives up his or her ethnic identity in favor of the dominant culture.
Cultural awareness is an in-depth self-examination of one's:
own background, recognizing biases and prejudices and assumptions about other people
Cultural competence is the process of:
Acquiring specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that ensure delivery of culturally congruent care
Ethnocentrism is the root of:
Biases and prejudices comprising beliefs and attitudes associating negative permanent characteristics to people who are perceived to be different from the valued group
When action is taken on one's prejudices:
Discrimination occurs
The dominant value orientation in North American society is:
Individualism and self-reliance in achieving and maintaining health. Caring approaches generally promote the client's independence and ability for self-care
Disparities in health outcomes between the rich and the poor illustrates:
the influence of socioeconomic factors in morbidity and mortality. Social factors such as poverty and lack of universal medical insurance compromise the health status of the poor and unemployed.
Culture strongly influences pain expression and need for pain medication. However, cultural pain:
May be suffered by a client whose valued way of life is disregarded by practitioners. Nurses need not assume that pain relief is equally valued across groups.
The dominant values in American society on individual autonomy and self-determination:
May be in direct conflict with diverse groups. Advance directives, informed consent, and consent for hospice are examples of mandates that may violate clients' values.
Cultural care preservation or maintenance
Retain and/or preserve relevant care values so that clients can maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death
Cultural care accommodation or negotiation
Adapt or negotiate with others for a beneficial or satisfying health outcome
Cultural care repatterning or restructuring
Reorder, change, or greatly modify clients' lifeways for a new, different, and beneficial health care pattern