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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the layers of skin?
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous
What is the outmost layer of the epidermis called?
stratum corneum
What does the stratum corneum consist of?
dead cells that are tightly packed together
What does the stratum corneum do for us?
protects and is a moisture barrier
How often are the dead skin cells shed?
every 4 weeks
What is the lower layer of the epidermis called?
stratum germinatavum
What is another name for the stratum germinatavum?
Basal cell layer
What are the two specialized cells that are in the stratum germinatavum?
-Melanocytes
-keratinocytes
What do the melanocytes produce?
melanin
A pigment that gives our skin color and protects the body from UV rays
melanin
How is the production of melanin stimulated?
sunlight and hormones
Melanin production is dependent on what?
heredity/race
What do the keratinocytes produce?
keratin
What is the function of keratin?
gives skin its waterproof coating
What is the second layer of skin?
Dermis
What is the outer most section of the dermis?
papillary layer
What is the function of the papillary layer?
makes us unique with our own finger prints and foot prints.
What connects the epidermis to the dermis?
the ridges in the papillary layer that make up our finger prints and foot prints
What is the second layer of the dermis?
reticular layer
What is the reticular layer made up of?
collagen and elastic fibers
What does the elasticity of skin depend on?
the amount and quality of the elastic fibers, which are scatter among the collagen fibers
The reticular layer has what, which is for the exchange of oxygen and heat?
capillaries and lymph vessels
What do collagen and elastic fibers do for the skin?
gives it flexibility and strength
The reticular layer is rich in ________ ________ that transmit the sensation of touch, pressure, temperature, pain, and itch.
Sensory nerves
What appendages are present in the reticular layer?
-hair follicles
-sebaceous glands
-sweat glands
What is the innermost layer of skin?
the subcutaneous layer
What is the subcutaneous layer made up of?
loose connective and adipose (fat) tissues.
What does adipose tissue serve as?
-an insulator
-shock absorber
-alternative energy source
Fat distribution varies how?
-age
-body area
-gender
Many _______ _______ go through the fatty layer and extend into the dermal layer, forming the capillary networks that supply nutrients and remove waste.
blood vessels
Where doesn't hair grow?
-lips
-umbilicus
-glans penis
-labia
-palms of the hands
-soles of the feet
Where are the hair follicles located at?
in the dermal layer but are actually extensions of the eipdermal layer
What is around the hair follicle that elevates the hair so it resembles "goose bumps"?
arrector pili
Which is tougher: hair keratin or skin keratin?
hair keratin
How is hair color determined?
genetically determined by a person's rate of melanin production
Hair growth occurs in ______, with a growth phase followed by a resting phase?
cycles
The absence of hair may be caused by what?
disease, treatment related to chemo or a result of heredity
What is distributed over the entire skin surface except for the palms of the hands and soles of the feet?
sebaceous glands
What does sebaceous glands produce?
sebum
What is a mildly bacteriostatic, fat containing substance?
sebum
What does debum do for the skin?
it lubricates and reduces water loss from the skin surface
What are the two types of sweat glands?
-eccrine
-apocrine
Stimulation of sweat from what glands can cause the body to lose as much as 10-12 L of fluid a day?
eccrine
Which sweat gland is not associated with the hair follicle?
eccrine
an isotonic liquid secreted by the eccrine glands
sweat
Why is sweat important?
helps regulate body temperature
Which sweat gland is in direct contact with the hair follicles?
apocrine
Where are most of the apocrine sweat glands found?
axillae, nipple areola, and perineal and periumbilical body areas
What causes the distinctive body odor?
the interaction of skin bacteria with the secretions of the apocrine glands
What grows at the ends of fingers and toes?
nails
What is the white, crescent shaped protion of the nail at the lower end of the nail plate called?
the lunula
What is the location of the nail matrix, where nail keratin is formed and nail growth begins?
the lunula
a layer of keratin at the nail fold that attaches the nail plate to the soft tissue of the nail fold
the cuticle
What features does the epidermis have that provide protection?
-keratin-protection of skin surface
-barrier to external microorganisms
-mechanical strength
What features does the dermis have that provide protection?
-provides fibroblasts for wound healing
-mechanical strength: collagen, elastin
What features do the subcutaneous tissue have that provide protection?
-mechanical shock absorber
-energy reserve
What features do the epidermis have that maintains homeostasis (water balance)?
-waterproof exterior that prevents fluid, electrolyte losses
What features do the dermis have that maintains homeostasis (water balance?)
-lymph and vessels respond to injuring, inflammation, infection
What features do the epidermis have the provide temperature regulation?
-eccrine sweat glands allow dissipation of heat
What features do the dermis have the provide temperature regulation?
-cutaneous vasculature dilates/contracts to promote/inhibit heat loss
What features do the subcutaneous tissues have the provide temperature regulation?
-fat cells act as insulators and aid in heat retention
What features does the epidermis have that makes it a sensory organ?
-neuroreceptor system transmits a variety of stimuli
What features does the dermis have that makes it a sensory organ?
-encloses an extensive network of nerve endings for relaying info to the brain
What features do the subcutaneous tissues have that make it a sensory organ?
large pressure receptors
What features does the epidermis have aids in vitamin synthesis?
conversion of Vitamin D
How does the epidermis affect psychosocial image?
alterations with epidermal disease/trauma
How does the dermis affect psychosocial image?
alterations with dermal disease (scleroderma)
How does the subcutaneous tissue affect psychosocial?
alterations in body fat distribution
a reddened area caused by increased amounts of oygenated blood in the dermal vasculature. Flushed appearance
erythema
localized red or purple discoloration caused by extravasation of blood into dermis and subcutaneous tissue
ecchymosis (bruise)
pinpoint, tiny and sharp circumscribed spots in the superficial layers of the epidermis
petechiae
skin changes produced by some causative factor. It appears in response to some change in the internal or eternal environment of the skin and is not altered by trauma
Primary lesions-warts
changes that result from alteration in the primary lesions, such as those caused by rubbing, scratching, medication, or involution. They either add to or take away from an existing primary lesion
Secondary lesion-scar, stretch marks
The pattern in which lesions are distributed over the body, whether local or generalized, and specific areas associated with the lesions
Distribution pattern
The size, shape, and arrangement of a lesion or groups of lesions.
Configuration and arrangement
Round (coin-shaped) lesions. Also known as discoid.
Nummular lesion
A linear shape to a lesion often occurs for some external reason such as scratching. Also striate
Linear lesion
Concentric rings like a dartboard. Also know as iris lesion
Target lesion
A rash that appears to be whirling in a circle
gyrate rash
lesions grouped in a circle like ringworm
Annular
an area of color change, flat, smooth, less than 1 cm
Macule
raised lesion like a mole
Papule
small blister less than 1/2 cm like chicken pox, burns
Vesicle
over growth of skin like psorasis wider than 1 cm
Plaque
raised area like hives, bug bite
Wheal
blister filled with pus like acne
pustule
crack in the skin
fissure
hyperkeratosis
scale
after a skin lesion is repaired, normal tissue is lost and replaced with connective tissue
scar
thinning of the epidermis like stretch mark
atrophic
this is a inflammatory disorder. It is autoimmune disease. The cells replicate rapidly-8x's faster than normal
Psoriosis
Psoriasis has periods of exacerbation and remission.
Illness, hormones, stress, medications can worsen
Psoriatic arthritis can occur in the joints
no cure
info
pediculosis capitus
head lice
pediculosis corporis
body lice
pediculosis pubis
pubic or crab lice
sarcoptes scabiei
scabies (mite)
Tinea capitus
ringworm of the scalp
tinea corporis
ringworm of the body
tinea cruris
jock itch
tinea pedis
Athlete's foot-most common
infection of the hair shaft- staph infection is a common cause
folliculitis
infection of the entire hair shaft, only one
furuncle
infection of the entire hair shaft, a group of 2 or more
carbuncles
What does Herpes type I cause?
cold sore
What does Herpes type II cause?
genital lesion
What is another name for herpes zoster?
shingles
This is a benign growth cause by the papilloma virus
warts
What type of pustule is a closed comedone?
a white head
What type of pustule is a open comedone?
a black head
raw, red, painful, itchy skin are s/s of what type of dermatitis?
contact
What type of dermatitis is cradle cap and diaper rash?
seborrheic
This type of ulcers is caused by poor circulation and prolonged edema
stasis ulcer
this is slow to heal if at all
irregular borders
This type of burn consists of sunburn to fire, scalding, and contact with hot objects
thermal burn-hot thermal most common
This type of burn is a localized injury to the skin resulting from the formation of ice crystals in the skin tissues and cells
Cold burn (frostbite)
What factors contribute to getting frost bite?
-age
-duration
-environmental temperature
-pre-existing medical conditions
The environmental temperature (cold) causes the vessels to ________. As a result, blood flow is __________ to the area which limits the warming capability of the body to the external tissues.
constrict
decreased
What layers of skin does superficial frosbite involve?
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue
What are some common sites for superficial frostbite?
ears, nose, fingers, and toes
What color can superficial frostbitten skin turn?
pale yellow to blue or mottled
This brostbite involves the skin layers, the subcutaneous tisse as well as muscle, bone, and tendon
Deep frostbite
What does the skin look like in deep frostbite?
white, hard, and without feeling
The tissue on a deep frostbite often develops _________.
gangrene
This burn results from acids, alkalis, and organic compounds.
Chemical burns
This substances tends to be more difficult to remove from the skin and as a result, they often cause a larger deeper burn than an acid wound.
Alkaline
Where are some Alkalis found?
oven and drain cleaners, fertilizers, and heavy industrial cleaners.
With chemical injuries, it is important to _______ the burning agent from the individual.
remove
Dry chemical should be brushed from the skin, clothing _______, and the skin _________ with large amounts of water.
removed
flushed
How long can tissue destruction continue for after the chemical injury?
72 hours
This type of burn is the result of intense heat generated by a current.
electrical burn
What factors determine the severity of an electrical burn?
-the amount of voltage
-the pathway of the current
-the surface area in contact with the current
-the length of time that contact is made
-thickness of the skin at the area of contact (areas with fat and bone are more protected than vital organs)
What is one of the biggest problems initially with electrical burn?
difficulty assessing the level of injury
What is the #1 complication of a burn?
infection
What type of burn:
damage to only the top layer of the skin. Healing occurs in 3-5 days and no scarring
Superficial burn
What type of burn:
entire epidermis and first 1/3 of dermis are destroyed. Healing in 10-21 days
Superficial Partial Thickness burn
What type of burn:
extends deeper into the dermis. Takes 3-6 weeks to heal and has scar formation
Deep Partial Thickness burn
What type of burn:
reaches through the entire dermis and sometimes into the subcutaneous fat. The skin cannot heal on its own. Take weeks to months to heal with grafting required and scar formation
Full thickness burns
human skin obtained from cadavers
homografts
patient's own skin taken from another area (non-injury)
Autografts
skin obtained from another species (usually pigskin)
Xenografts (heterografts)
derived from placenta
amniotic membrane
grown from small specimens of epidermal cells from unbruned area of pt's body
cultured skin
an uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells
skin cancer
abnormal growth of cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis and is the most common type of skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
*least deadly, looks like open sores, can be a shiny nodule, pearly, or translucent, white, or red
this a highly aggressive skin cancer that is found in the middle layer of the epidermis
squamous cell carcinoma
*metastasizes easily, has irregular borders
this occurs in the cells that produce pigment and is less common than squamous or basal cell carcinoma, but is more dangerous
melanoma
*the leading cause of death from skin disease
FYI: skin cancers are sometimes classified as either melanoma or nonmelanoma. Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the most common nonmelanoma skin cancers.
info
TorF:
Skin cancer is the least common form of cancer in the United States.
False
What are some known risk factors for skin cancer?
-complexion
-genetics
-age
-sun exposure and sunburns
-smoking
What is ABCDE?
-Asymmetry-one half of the abnormal skin area is different than the other half
-Borders-irregular borders
-Color-varies from one area to another with shades of tan, drown, or black (sometimes white, red, blue)
-Diameter-usually (but not always) larger than 6 mm in size
-Evolving-any skin growth that bleeds or will not heal or changes in character
Large moles that are not cancerous
Nevus
What are some ways to prevent skin damage from the sun?
-protect your skin from the sun when you can
-try to avoid exposure between 10 am and 4 pm
-use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30
-apply sunscreen during winter months as well
this is a pre-malignant form of squamous cell carcinoma with a typical lesion being irregularly shaped
Actinic keratosis
actinic keratosis lesion may be flat or elevated, and often has a rough, wart-like appearance. What is the cause?
sun damage
What are the most common areas that squamous cell ca occur?
areas frequently exposed to the sun, such as rim of the ear, lower lip, face, bald scalp, neck, hands, arms and legs
What are some telltale signs of sun damage?
wrinkling, changes in pigmentation, and loss of elasticity
This skin carcinoma typically appear as a persistent thick, rough, scaly patch that can bleed if bumped. They often look like warts and sometimes appear as open sores with a raised border and a crusted surface over an elevated pebbly base
Squamous cell CA
This skin CA occurs on parts of the body excessively exposed to the sun-especially the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back.
Basal cell CA
Who has the highest risk for Basal Cell CA?
fair skin, blond or red hair, and blue, green, or grey eyes
Anyone who has more than ____ moles is at greater risk for melanoma.
100
The new method of sight detection for skin lesions that could be melanomas. These melanomas look different compared to surrounding moles.
"The Ugly Duckling"