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28 Cards in this Set

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Complete
Bone snaps into two or more pieces
Closed
Skin is intact over the fracture site
Open (compound)
Bone protrudes through the skin
Greenstick
A fracture where one side is broken and the other side is bent
Impacted (compressed)
A fracture where one piece is driven into another
Comminuted
A fracture in which the bone is shattered or crushed
Complicated
a fracture of the bone combined with the lesion of some artery, nervous trunk, or
joint.
Pathologic
one due to weakening of the bone structure by pathologic processes, such as neoplasia, osteomalacia, or osteomyelitis
Avulsion Fracture
separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon.
Signs and Symptoms of Fractures
Pain. Loss of function. Deformity/alignment. Spasms of muscles around fractures.
Crepitus
A clinical sign in medicine characterized by a peculiar crackling, crinkly, or grating feeling or sound under the skin, around the lungs, or in the joints.
Closed Reduction Technique of repaiing fractures.
1) manually pull and realign bones
2) Immobilize bone
Open Reduction Technique of repairing fractures.
Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)
use screws, nails,plates and pins.
Immobilization
To hold bone in alignment and promote healing.
Types of Immobilization.
Cast
Plaster or fiberglass. uses sling. muscle atrophy in 2-6 weeks.
Traction
Decrease muscle spasms.
Immobility after reduction
Realignment
Skin Traction
adhesive material applied to skin via wrap
External Fixation Devices reduce and stabilize complex fractures.
Hoffman, Halo brace. allows for early ambulation and use and avoids cast placement
Nursing Care of Fractures
Elevate part
NVS/CMS-q1-4 hours or with VS
Exercise to part
Treach adaptions to mobility limitations
Drain care
Bone healing
begins within 24 hours
Hematoma Formation
blood clot surrounds injured part.
1-3 days
Granulation
contains fibroblasts and osteocytes
3days to 2 weeks
Callus Formation
immature bone produced
2-6 weeks
Consolidation
Increase new bone: gap completely closed in.
3 weeks-6 months
Remodeling
Recycle old bone
Complications of Fractures
Nonunion: no firm union produced.
Malunion: union in deformity.
Infection: osteomyelitis
Fat embolism: fat globules escape from bone into blood vessel
S&S of Fat Embolisms
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Raised pulse and repiration
Cyanosis and hypoxia
Compartment Syndrome
Specific bone fractures
Clavicle-rarely hospitalized.
Colles-wrist fracture.
Hip fracture-occurs mostly in elderly