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80 Cards in this Set

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Rigor Mortis
Approx 2-4 hours after death body stiffens when it stops synthesizing ATP which is necessary for muscle fiber relaxation-occurs first in involuntary muscles then strts at head and goes down lastly the extremities
Algor Mortis
decrease in body temp that occurs after death
Livor Mortis
The blueish purple discoloration that appears in the dependant areas of the bosy
Shroud
a large piece of plastic or cotton material used to enclose the body after death
Signs of impending death
muscle weakness
respiration change
sensory change
circulation change
isotonic exercise
muscle shortens to produce a muscle contraction and active movement
isometric
no joint or muscle movement but change in muscle tension
isokenetic exercise
muscle is tense or contracted against resistence
stages of sleep
stage 1: light sleep easilt aroused
stage 2: deeper relaxation
stage 3: early stage of deep sleep difficult to arouse
stage 4: deep sleep shortens toward morning
REM: sound sleep-hard to arouse change in vital signs
insomnia
chronic difficulty sleeping, remaining asleep or to go back to sleep after awakening
sleep apnea
a cessation in breathing for short periods during sleep causing blood oxygen to fall creating risk for cardiac disrhythmias, hypertension and right heart failure
Narcolepsy
sudden onset of sleep which cant be controlled
somnambulism
sleep walking occurs during stage 3 and 4
Night tremors
during stage 3 the child awakens shakes, screams, seems very frightened and is difficult to calm
nocturnal enuresis
involuntary urination during the night`
analgesic
medication that relieves pain
Nsaids
peripheral outside the nervous system inhibit the biosynthesis of protaglandins, analgesic and anti-inflammatory
Opiod
bind to opiate site and activate endogenous pain supressionin the cns
metabolism
consists of the physical and chemical process by which energy is made available for use by the body
anabolic reactions
build substances and body tissue
catabolic reactions
break down substances
carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen-preferred energy source-needed to metabolize fats and spare proteins
proteins
made of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen-only source of nitrogen-amino acids are essentail for synthesis of body tissue in growth, mainance and repair
complete proteins
contain all essential amino acidsfound in meat fish poultry eggs cheese and milk
incomplete proteins
do not contain all amino acids
complementary proteins
incomplete proteins that when eaten together combine to act as a complete protein
lipids
made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen-insoluable in water-
vitamins
organic substance required for body metabolism-depend on dietary intake
vit a
liver carrots egg yolk fortified milk
fat soluable
vit d
sunlight, fresh liver oils, fortified milk
fat soluable
vit e
vegetable oil wheat germ and whole grains
fat soluab;e
vit k
dark leafy green vegetables and synthesis from bacteria in intestines
fat soluab;e
vit c
citrus fruits broccoli green pepper greens and strawberries
water soluable
vit b
organ meat, pork, seafood, egg yolk, yeast, green leafy vegetables, grains, nuts, bananas, cantaloupe
foods to avoid 3 days before testing for occult blood
red meat raw fruits and vegetables
gastrostomy
opening throught he abdominal wall into the stomache
jujunostomy
opeing through the abdominal wall into the jejunum
ileostomy
opening into the ileum for draining fecal matter
cleansing enema
given to remove feces-treat constipation prevent conamination into sterile field promote visualization part of bowel training program
carminative enema
given to relieve gas
oil retention enemas
given to soften feces and lubricate the rectum and anal canal faculitating the passage of feces
return flow enemas
used to expel flatulance
urine
light yellow, pH 4.6-8, specific gravity of 1.010-1.025
urinary incontinence
loss of control of urination
enuresis
repeated involuntary urination in children who are old enough for voluntary control
polyuria
production of abnormally large amounts of urine by the kidneys
oliguria
low urnine output (less than 500 ml day)
anuria
lack of urinary production
indwelling urinary catheter
used when a catheter is needed for continuous drainage of urine-has a balloon so will not slip out of bladder
straight catheters
used to drain the bladderr for short periods of time
irrigation
washing out or flushing with a specific solution usuaklly to wash out bladder but sometimes to apply medication to bladder mucousa
total incontinence
total uncontrolled and continuous loss of urine at unpredictable times
functional incontinence
involuntary unpredictable passage of urine in clients with intact urinary and nervous system-client feels a strong urge to void and void before reaching apprioate receptile
stress incontinence
increase intraabdominal pressure causing leaking of small amt of urine
reflex incontinence
involuntary loss of urine that occurs at soemwhat predictable intervals when a certain bladder volume is reached
ventilation
movement of air into and out of lungs
respiration
process of gas exchange between the bloodstream and the air in the alveoli
hemoptysis
coughing up blood into the respiratory tract
orthopnea
inability to breath except in upright or standing position
signs of hypoxia
tachycardia tachypnea dyspnea pallor and cyanosis
signs of hypercarbia
restlessness hypertension and headache
signs of oxygen toxixity
tracheal irritation, cough, decreased pulmonary ventilation
antiduiretic Hormone
released by the posterior pituitary gland reduces the production of urineby causing the kidney tubules to reabsorb water
renin
causes the conversionof angiotension I to angiotenion II
angiotension II
acts directly on the nephrons to casue Na and water retention also stimulated by adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
aldosterone
causes kidneys to excrete k and retain Na
dehydration
occurs when water is lost from body but no loss in electrolytes
principle electrolytes in extracelluar fluid
sodium, chloride, bicarbonate
principle electrons in intracelluar fluid
magnesium and potassium
Norm sodium concentrations
135-145
norm serum potassium
3.5-5.0
acid base balance
depends on balance between carbonic acid and bicarbonic acid
kidneys regulate
carbonic acid and bicarbonic acid
respiratory alkalosis
low co2 due to alveolar hyperventilation
respiratory acidosis
high co2 due to hypoventilation
metabolic acidosis
low bicarbonate
metabolic alkalosis
high bicarbonate
potassium
controls nerve impulses of heart, skeletal, intestional and lung tissue
regulated acid base balance
calcium
regulating muscle, neuromuscular and cardiac function
magnesium
necessary for intracelluar metabolism